I was a Child, I was Little….. Child Labour in Turkey during 1920-1960

Title of the Study: I was a Child, I was Little…..

Child Labour in Turkey during 1920-1960

 

Type of the Study: Discussion Paper

 

Author of the Study: Ahmet Makal

 

Presentation,,

Year/Place of Publication: Ankara, 2006

 

Language of the Study: Turkish

 

Number of Pages: 41

 

Purpose: To discuss child labour in Turkey between 1920 1960 within legal, sectoral and economic terms.

 

Content: The paper has six parts. The first is on conceptual framework of child labour. Second part is about the legal and regulational framework. Quantity of working children is outlined in the third part. The sectoral distrubution of working children is discussed in the fourth part. Working conditions of child workers are highlighted in the fifth part. And sixth part is on international regulations and norms.

 

Method: Literature scanning method is used.

 

Excerpt: It can be clearly pointed out that there is a considerable amount of child labour in different sectors of the economy including small and medium enterprises between the years 1920-1960 in Turkey.

 

Some keywords: working children, working conditions, international regulation

 

 

Research Report Aimed at Children Working at the Wood Works Sector


Title of the Study: Research Report Aimed at Children Working at the Wood Works Sector

Type of the Study: Research – Evaluation Report (The work has been conducted within the scope of the ILO-IPEC Programme.)

Author of the Study: Ministry of Labor and Social Security Department of Labor Inspection Commission

 

Presentation,,

Year/Place of Publication: 2005, Ankara

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 100

Purpose: Determination of bad working conditions of child workers, their working reasons, social and cultural situations in Ankara, İzmir ve Bursa in the furniture sector, and proposal of possible and plausible actions to immediately eliminate their bad working conditions

 

Content: Introduction section explains wood works as a sector. Then selection of study areas, research method, sampling, findings and demographical properties of working children are discussed. Demographical properties of families and employers are listed, and working conditions are probed into in detail. The study is ended with outcomes and proposals.

Method: Field studies are made in 364 workplaces in Ankara, 210 workplaces in İzmir and 126 workplaces in Bursa. Workplaces are randomly chosen from the address list of each city. Because the address lists prepared for three cities contain no information about the firms, mono-stage layered sampling has been used instead of multi-staged.

Excerpt: In consideration of working conditions and environments faced by children at workplaces, all of the children under the age of 15 have to be taken away from working life, and children aged between 15-18 must be taken away from heavy works such as wood works negatively affecting their physical and mental development. P.66

Some keywords: woodworks, working conditions, socio-demographic level, socio-economic level

 

Taştı, E.(2001); ‘‘Trends Revealed by DIE Child LaboUr Surveys’’, (In: Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara, p.67-99


Taştı, E.(2001); ‘‘Trends Revealed by DIE Child LaboUr Surveys’’, (In: Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara, p.67-99.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

First part of the article gives an overview of population and workforce in Turkey. Second part makes general explanations about child labour surveys and touches the definitions and concepts used in the survey. Third part focuses on subjects like trends revealed by child labour surveys, living conditions of children, educational status of child, children working in economical jobs, children working in domestic works, reasons underlying child labour, working conditions and their expectations from the future.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The article makes an explanation about the child labour surveys conducted by DIE and trends revealed by these surveys are put forth comparatively. Because there are differences in scope between the October 1994 Child Labour Survey and October 1999 Child Labour Survey, comparisons are made on existing data for age groups 6-14 and 6-17. (p.71)

Some Keywords:

working conditions, child labour, reasons of child labour, child labour survey

 

 

 

 

 

Gelegen, D.(2001); ‘‘Child Labor’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, April, 6:42-46


Gelegen, D.(2001); ‘‘Child Labor’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, April, 6:42-46.

Number of Works Cited: 1

Scope:

Leon Warshaw’s article (Precarious Employment and Child Labour, Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety. International Labour Organization. Geneva, 1998.) has been translated to our language. The concepts of child labour and child slavery are explained. Then, the subject has been deepened based on ILO data. The following section discussed in which jobs the children worked and the potential damages of such jobs. The final section focused on economic and social results of child labour.

An Excerpt from the Article:

There are many forms of employment where the workers are subjected to impoverishment, exploitation and maltreatment; and where their health and safety are in great risks. Despite efforts by regulations, international conventions and treaties and solutions offered by them, it seems such working conditions will continue as long as human poverty, repression, misaccommodation and nutritional conditions remain the same. Workers also do not have the chance to benefit from information, education, skill gaining, protective and treating health services required to get rid of the bad situation they are in. (p.6)

Some Keywords:

working conditions, apprentices, child workers, child slavery, child exploitation, social security, poverty

 

Geçer, H.; Çağlayan, Ç.(2004); ‘‘Frequency of Work-Related Accidents in Kocaeli Vocational Training Students’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, 20:27-33


Geçer, H.; Çağlayan, Ç.(2004); ‘‘Frequency of Work-Related Accidents in Kocaeli Vocational Training Students’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, 20:27-33.

Number of Works Cited: 16

Scope:

The study describes the socio-demographic properties of the students of Kocaeli Vocational Training Center (M.E.M.), explains their working conditions, and researched the frequency of work-related accidents and relation with factors causing such accidents. No samples are chosen for this cross-sectional study, and 703 (90,9%) out of the 773 students studying at Kocaeli Vocational Training Center were included in this study.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Work-related accidents experienced by children in their working lives leave traces that they will carry in their minds and on their bodies during their early ages. It is possible to prevent work-related accidents by improving working conditions and taking necessary measures. As a result of work-related accidents experienced by Kocaeli Vocational Training Center students, 11,6% of them loose less than three workdays, 3,9% of them loose less than eight workdays and more. (p.32)

Some Keywords:

working conditions, child workers, occupational accident, socio-demographic level

 

 

Erder, S.(2005); ‘‘Working Children: Apprentice or Worker?’’Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.38-44


Erder, S.(2005); ‘‘Working Children: Apprentice or Worker?’’Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.38-44.

Number of Works Cited: 11

Scope:

The article discusses some trends observed in a field study conducted some 10 years ago about working children. In this study, which is relation-seeking rather than representative, some observations are made about the positions of children working in Istanbul. This field study is based on interviews made in 1993 with children and their employers in Istanbul Umraniye small-sized industrial workplaces; and interviews and observations made with the ‘‘Apprentice Training Center’’ in this region and some workplaces that have launched apprentice training initiatives at their workplaces.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The first point that attracted our attention during the study about working children was that they were not homogenous with regard to their poverty degree, family relationships, origins, working conditions and working motives of children. Likewise, the study conducted by Altıntaş in Ankara also emphasizes that children working on streets are not homogenous groups. Again, studies reveal that the experiences of female children in working life have clear differences compared to those of male children. (p.38)

Some Keywords:

family, working children, working conditions, apprentices, apprentice training, reasons of child labour, girl child labour, poverty

 

 

Demirbilek, S.; Demirbilek, T.(2001); ‘‘Importance of Apprentice Training for Working Children: A Study on Apprentices Studying at İzmir Apprentice Training Center’’, (In: Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara, p. 321-337


Demirbilek, S.; Demirbilek, T.(2001); ‘‘Importance of Apprentice Training for Working Children: A Study on Apprentices Studying at İzmir Apprentice Training Center’’, (In: Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara, p. 321-337.

Number of Works Cited: 19

Scope:

The article focuses on the importance of apprentice training for working children, and then the survey applied on apprentices studying in some profession branches related to industrial sector in İzmir Provincial Apprentice Training Center has been discussed and evaluated. Conducted between 2 and 13 April, the survey is based on in-depth conversations with administrators, instructors and students.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Despite the said negative conditions, apprentices have harmonious relations with their workmen. Apprentices are not complaining about their employers and master workmen. Only 19 apprentices reported that they were subject to maltreatment. Children are harmonious and obedient at home-workplace-school in parallel with the judgment of their families. The reason for this is that apprentices learn the job basically by their own skills and efforts and show attitudes in line with the working, ethical and culture in their workplaces based on the education and manners they received from their families. (p.331)

Some Keywords:

working conditions, aprentices, apprentice training, child workers

 

Çiner, C.U.(2002); ‘‘A Future Without Child Labour’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No. 63, July-August


Çiner, C.U.(2002); ‘‘A Future Without Child Labour’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No. 63, July-August.

Number of Works Cited: 1

Scope:

The issue of child labour in the world has been compiled in consideration of a working report of ILO. Size, causes and results of the issue are discussed.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Child labour has been described as a phenomenon that has many various forms. Based on available data, it has been concluded that 352 million children aged between 5 and 14 were in an activity with economic gains. From here, it is seen that 106 million children in the minimum working age are working in an acceptable job. Working conditions of remaining 246 million children need improvement. (p.16)

Some Keywords:

minimum age, working conditions, child workers

Canbaz, S.(2003); ‘‘Evaluation of the Trait-Stat Anxiety Levels of Apprentices Attending Samsun Apprentice Training Center’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, 2003, 13:33-39


Canbaz, S.(2003); ‘‘Evaluation of the Trait-Stat Anxiety Levels of Apprentices Attending Samsun Apprentice Training Center’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, 2003, 13:33-39.

Number of Works Cited: 25

Scope:

Millions of children in the growing age are exploited by employment under inconvenient conditions. This study has been planned to reveal the socio-demographic properties and working life details of children studying and working at Samsun Apprentice Training Center (CEM). The Population of this cross-sectional type of study is drawn from “apprentice candidate” and “apprentice” children studying one day of the week at Samsun CEM and working at a workplace in other days during the 2000-2001 educational year. A survey form covering questions relating to socio-demographic aspects, socio-economic level, working area, working environment and risks caused by working conditions has been given to children included in the scope of this study in groups of 15 children and under observation.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Because of the inability to prevent child labour in the short term, action to be taken must be to implement actions to solve the problems of the child in working life, and implement actions to minimize the negative effects of working life on their development. Problems of working children, their causes and solutions are varying. Solutions aimed at problems in this multi-dimensional issue should be addressed in co-operation by the government, employers, non-governmental organizations and professional bodies, families and children. (p.39)

Some Keywords:

working conditions, apprentices, socio-demographic level, socio-economic level

 

Altıntaş, B.(2005); ‘‘Child Labour: Causes, Problems and Policy Management’’, Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.58-64


Altıntaş, B.(2005); ‘‘Child Labour: Causes, Problems and Policy Management’’, Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.58-64.

Number of Works Cited:-

Scope:

The study examines the different dimensions of child labour and reviews the policy perspective on child labour and working children based on the dynamic of struggle against child labour. Reasons underlying child employment, working conditions of children in dangerous working relations, description of risk factors related to the physical and psycho-social balances of children in the working life and determination of its possible effects on children are the purposes of this study. The study also aims the creation of a policy and action plan for working children.

 

An Excerpt from the Article:

The issue of child labour is an issue that has to be taken into consideration not just because many children are working illegally but also because their works are mostly dependent on exploitation. Children are being employed for social, political, cultural and economic reasons. (p.59)

Some Keywords:

working conditions, child workers, reasons of child labour, child exploitation, occupational hazards

 

Alkış, N.; İrgil, E.; Pala, K.; Aytekin, H.(2004); ‘‘Working Conditions and Social Problems of Children Studying at Gemlik Apprentice Training Center’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, 17:15-20


Alkış, N.; İrgil, E.; Pala, K.; Aytekin, H.(2004); ‘‘Working Conditions and Social Problems of Children Studying at Gemlik Apprentice Training Center’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, 17:15-20.

Number of Works Cited: 15

Scope:

The study has been conducted in the 2000-2001 educational year to obtain information relating to the working conditions and social problems of apprentices studying and working at Gemlik Apprentice Training Center. 89% of study participants were male, and 11% female, with a mean age of 16,9. 50,5% of apprentices stated that they attended the apprentice training center for the purpose of gaining a profession and 125 apprentices (57,3%) stated that they intended to continue with their education if a new chance could be offered. It has been found that 7,4% of apprentices worked until work completion, and 89,4% worked over 8 hours. These times are much longer than the legally required working hours. Consequently, it was found that apprentices do not practically have the rights given by laws, and worked under heavy conditions.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The apprenticeship establishment implies the children gaining professions within the workman-apprentice relationship in traditional societies and in traditional labour relationships, and familiarize with a profession group. Because apprenticeship is traditionally an establishment that the society is used to and children start working under the title of “apprentice” results in easy exploitation of child labour facing no social or cultural barriers and increase in the number of working children. (p.15)

Some Keywords:

working conditions, working hours, apprentices, alcohol and cigarette addiction in apprentices, social problem

Children Working in The Streets, Their Families and Children’s Rights: A Study in Ankara


Title of the Study: Children Working in The Streets, Their Families and Children’s Rights: A Study in Ankara

Type of the Study: Master Thesis

Author of the Study: Tülin Kuşgözoğlu

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: Ankara, 2005 (TODAİE Public Administration Programme)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 277

Purpose: Family dimension in the child-family-society triangle that lies in the basis of the problem is studied by way of data gathering from children working in the streets and their families. The study tries to determine the profiles of families of children working in the streets and some data about their opinions on children’s rights, information and application levels are accessed.

Content: Part one discusses definitions and concepts about children working in the streets. Part two looks at the problem of children working in the streets from the dimension of children’s rights. Part three includes a study made in Ankara.

Method: Interviews are made with 55 families living in Ankara whose children are working on the streets. Data is gathered by individual interviews thru forms prepared by researcher. Interviewed families in the study are chosen by random sampling from among families found to have their children working on the streets during previously made studies at Ulus and Fatma Üçer Child and Youth Centers and Altındağ Community Center operating under SHÇEK Ankara Social Services Directorate.

Excerpt: Children working in the streets phenomenon seen as a form of poverty and child labour in the most general sense covers almost all of the children’s rights violations. Particularly during recent years, addressed in priority by international organizations, this case is almost passing in front of child labour. (s.147)

Some keywords: family, working conditions, child rights, children working on the streets, poverty

 

 

 

Determination of Effectivity of Apprentice Training With Regard to Vocational Training, Social Status and Occupational Risks


Title of the Study: Determination of Effectivity of Apprentice Training With Regard to Vocational Training, Social Status and Occupational Risks

Type of the Study: Preliminary Report

Authors of the Study: Ministry of Education Apprentice Training and General Education Directorate

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: May 1997, Ankara

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 35

Purpose: To gather and evaluate the data obtained from Ministry of Education Apprentice Training and General Education Directorate and ILO-IPEC joint survey in 35 cities and 47 Apprentice Training Centers.

Content: Preliminary Report

Method: 21789 apprentice student sample is formed by taking into account 47 Apprentice training Centers in 35 cities from 8 different occupations. Information is obtained from 11846 workplace where practical education is given to craftsmen. Also the observations of 633 trainers are added to the survey.

Excerpt: The question to determine the accidents that these apprentices were subject to reveals that %49,5 never had accidents and %30,6 had small scratches or injuries where there was no need of medical examination and %25,9 had accidents where their injuries were cured with ordinary medical examination.(p.16)

Some Keywords: working children, working conditions, apprentice training, occupational accident, crime

Working Children in Turkey Field Survey Preliminary Report


Title of the Study: Working Children in Turkey Field Survey Preliminary Report

Type of the Study: Field Survey Preliminary Report

Authors of the Study: Ministry of Labour and Social Security

Presentation

Year/Place of Publication: May 1994

Language of The Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 123

Purpose: To make inter-sectoral comparisons using the data obtained from the surveys conducted between February 1994 and March 1994 and to create a base for realistic solutions.

Content: The data(working conditions, socio-cultural characteristic, structural characteristics of the employers, apprenticeship evaluation, factors effecting risk conditions) observed from field surveys conducted by 7 groups in 7 different sectors(metal, woodwork, service, confection, textile, leather, automotive) are presented. Also observations, suggestions and determinations about occupational conditions are shared. The report enables readers to make sectoral comparisons.

Method: In total 738 workplaces are inspected, 1671 out of 3479 children, 712 out of 738 employer and 574 skilled craftsmen are questioned. Work groups are formed in 7 cities(Adana, Ankara, Antalya, Bursa, İstanbul, İzmir, Samsun). To be able to reach the workplaces some records and sweep net sources are used.

Excerpt: Within the program mentioned the reasons why children work, the occupational conditions, the policies that should be created to enhance the conditions of the working children are discussed in a meeting with the attendance of experts from ILO on October 1993. It is decided in this educational meeting that to be able to enhance the working conditions of the working children and to keep them away from working, the profiles of these children should be explained with related numbers concerning the situation. (p.5)

Some Keywords: working children, working conditions, ILO-IPEC

Sencer, Y.; Erbilgin, K.( 1978 ); “The Problems Of Our Apprentices: The Results Of A Field Survey”, First National Occupational Health Congress, 19-21 October 1978, İstanbul, p. 550-559

Sencer, Y.; Erbilgin, K.( 1978 ); “The Problems Of Our Apprentices: The Results Of A Field Survey”, First National Occupational Health Congress, 19-21 October 1978, İstanbul, p. 550-559.

 

Number of Works Cited: 4

 

Scope:

The social features, occupational and life conditions of apprentices working in different parts of İstanbul are examined. For this purpose interviews are done with 319 apprentices from different sectoral backgrounds. Also, the legislation’s (no. 2089 Apprentice, Experinced Apprentice and Masterstroke) reflection on practice and level of gaining validity is tested. The report is an excerpt of the data acquired and it is the first study about apprentices.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The fact that more than %80 of apprentices born out of İstanbul are the children of families migrated to İstanbul after 1965 is taking attention. It is mentioned that the reason for migration of apprentices are %58 unemployment-bad straits-insuficient amount of land. (p.553)

 

Some Key Words:

working conditions, apprentice training, apprenticeship, apprentice-experienced apprentice-masterworkman system, migration

Özşahin, A.; Bostancı, M.; Zencir, M.(1999); “The Occupational Conditions of The Apprentices Studying at The Denizli Vali Necati Bilican Apprentice Training Center’’, Toplum ve Hekim Magazine, Ankara, March- April, 14(2), p. 87-92


Özşahin, A.; Bostancı, M.; Zencir, M.(1999); “The Occupational Conditions of The Apprentices Studying at The Denizli Vali Necati Bilican Apprentice Training Center’’, Toplum ve Hekim Magazine, Ankara, March- April, 14(2), p. 87-92

Number of Works Cited: 28

Scope:

The article is based on the research made at Denizli Vali Necati Bilican Apprentice Training Center which includes information about the living conditions of working children. The subject of this survey which has explanatory characteristics, is the candidate apprentices and apprentices studying and working at the same area. First the general profile of these children and their families are drown then data about their working conditions are given. It is emphasised in this article that these children are working beyond the permission of the laws where they are really poorly paid. Also it is stated that the results of this survey is far more worse than the findings of the other polls.

An Excerpt from the Article:

More than half of the children said(%53,5) they work for 9-12 hours, %28,4 said they work for more than 12 hours a day. Children that work for 8 hours a day, which is the legal standard only consists of %18,1. %69,2 stated that they love their jobs and %27,2 said they only like some aspects of their jobs. When children are asked, %66,6 said they only do their occupational obligations, %29,7 said sometimes they do other staff and %3,7 said they only do the petty jobs. % 58,1 said they do not have any yearly holiday, %13,2 said they have 8-15 days of holiday, %7,2 said they only have less than 7 days of yearly holidays. %83,3 stated that they work 6-7 days a week and only %22,5 work for 5 days a week. (p.89)

Some Key Words:

working conditions, workingh hours, apprentices, apprentice training

Öke, M.K.(1979); “A Sociaological Survey on the Working Conditions of the Apprentices in Ankara’’, Çalışma Magazine, January- April, p. 37-56


Öke, M.K.(1979); “A Sociaological Survey on the Working Conditions of the Apprentices in Ankara’’, Çalışma Magazine, January- April, p. 37-56.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The article is based on the survey conducted in the Ankara’s Siteler and Sanayi Çarşısı(Industrial Bazaar) area where 40 apprentices in 15 different work places are questioned and interview with Çırak-Der Ankara Branch Representative. There are 41 questions on the poll and the questions were about their ages, former places they worked, their experiences, their social security status, occupational safety and health attitudes, their involvement in the actual production process, their wages, distance between the Ministry of Labour’s occupational inspectors and them, their educational backgrounds, reason to start work, number of their brothers and sisters, amount of hours they can rest a day, and etc. Also legal issues are discussed.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The results of the survey shows that they are literally involved in the production process and whatever the coercion is they are not students and they can’t be either. They are non-qualified young workers and they have no difference from the elder labour force apart from their ages. Therefore, these young workers should find a place in the legal framework so that they can benefit from the protective side of the labour laws. The industrial apprenticeship concept can not be admitted in Turkey as this means the legal exploitation of the young workers using the legal framework. This whole concept should be eliminated from the literature cause whatever the legal procedures are the system can not be corrected. (p.44-45)

Some Key Words:

working conditions, apprenticeship, occupational accident, occupational safety and health, sociology

 

Mangır M.; Aral N.; Köksal A.(1993); ”Reasons For Working Of The Children Attending Apprentice Training Centers”, Kültür Gençlik Magazine, January-April, Ministry of Culture, Ankara, p. 43-45


Mangır M.; Aral N.; Köksal A.(1993); ”Reasons For Working Of The Children Attending Apprentice Training Centers”, Kültür Gençlik Magazine, January-April, Ministry of Culture, Ankara, p. 43-45.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

Children that attend Siteler Apprentice Training Center from metal, upholstery and woodwork sectors are selected using simple random sampling model in pairs of 60. It is found that although economic contribution to family, and lack of education opportunities are factors effecting child labour the main reason is unemployment and poverty related to this. The necessitiy of the active participation of the society for children’s escape from the negative working conditions and for becoming ones that can safely look at the future and who are fully emotionally, methally and socially developed are emphasised.

An Excerpt from the Article:

But unemployment, and poverty caused as a conseqounce of this fact lies in the base of fundamental reasons. Therefore, studies should be done to overcome unemployment and preventive measures should be taken. (p.45)

Some Key Words:

working children, working conditions, apprentice training, apprenticeship, unemployment, poverty

 

 

Koçak, A. (1994); “Smoking Habits Among Working Children”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, May-June, Issue No. 14, p. 25-31


Koçak, A. (1994); “Smoking Habits Among Working Children”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, May-June, Issue No. 14, p. 25-31.

Number of Works Cited: 5

Scope:

After discussing smoking habits of the working children, behaviorial and attitude change towards the subject is explained. A training program about the negative aspects of smoking and an action suggestion is included in the article.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Working children apart from the insufficient working conditions are also under the social and cultural risks. The wandering, entering into different environmet and acquiring new friend needs of children are restricted in working life. The pyscho-social development is incomplete and their needs are not covered sufficiently. As a sign of lost of childhood identity, smoking is a risk factor. The protection of working children from these factors can only be maintained by restoring their child identity by tieing up childhood values and concepts to them. Because of this reason multi- dimensional researches, studies and programs that will be conducted carry a big importance. (p.31)

Some Key Words:

working children, working conditions, child development, child identity, cigarette addiction in children

Karataş, K.(1993); “Child Labour Problem: Reasons, Results And Solution Suggestions”, Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Hizmetler Yüksekokulu Magazine, Volume: 11, Issue No. 1-2-3, p. 85-102


Karataş, K.(1993); “Child Labour Problem: Reasons, Results And Solution Suggestions”, Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Hizmetler Yüksekokulu Magazine, Volume: 11, Issue No. 1-2-3, p. 85-102.

Number of Works Cited: 12

Scope:

The study which gives the use of child labour both in the world and in our country with its history also included the national and international legislations and regulations. In the preceding parts the reasons of child labour use and the sectors where child labour is intense and the effect of existing conditions on children are evaluated. The last part where suggestions to solve the problem are listed, the importance of creating a conscious society and a sensitive public opinion to render social change is emphasised. It is also stated that the necessity of active participation of the society is made clear.

An Excerpt from the Article:

As children who are in growing up period have low resistance capacity and weak muscles, they easily get tired. Therefore, they are more proun to occupational diseases and accidents. There are not proper statistics on occupational accidents especially in the developing countries. But the statistics in some developed countries reveal that the ratio of children facing these accidents are quite high. (p.96)

Somke Key Words:

working conditions, child labour, child workers, child health, occupational accident, occupational disease, social change

 

Fişek, A.G.(1999); “Working Children and Small And Medium Enterprises’’, İşveren Magazine, Volume: 37, Issue No. 7, April, Ankara


Fişek, A.G.(1999); “Working Children and Small And Medium Enterprises’’, İşveren Magazine, Volume: 37, Issue No. 7, April, Ankara.

Number of Works Cited: 5

Scope:

The importance of small enterprises are discovered in the economy again but also the low level of occupational safety and health conditions should be considered as well. Also it is emphasised that occupational diseases and accidents are the results of mal practice of preventive measures and as the number of employees decreases in a work place the conditions worsen(which is even worse in places where there is child labour). In the international arena the debate of child labour is focused on ‘‘intolerable child labour’’ and within this framework from forced labour to working in hard conditions drows the lines.

An Excerpt from the Article:

182 children-adolescents are withdrawn from labour force because of death related to occupational diseases or lost labour capability(disabled). This consists of %3,1 of the group left their work for these reasons. The ones which lost a couple workdays because of injuries or illnesses make up %2,7. (p.19)

Some Key Words:

working conditions, child labour, occupational accident, occupational safety and health, small and medium enterprises, occupational disease

 

Fişek, A.G.; Taşyürek, M.(1995); “A Research Capturing Working Conditions In Small Enterprises Employing Children”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, September-October, Issue No. 22, p. 15-23


Fişek, A.G.; Taşyürek, M.(1995); “A Research Capturing Working Conditions In Small Enterprises Employing Children”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, September-October, Issue No. 22, p. 15-23

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

Working conditions in 126 enterprises that are participating in Health Service to Small Enterprises Employing Children project which is carried out by Fişek Institute in Ankara-Ostim Industrial Site is evaluated, and these conditions are compared(independent variables; if anyone employed under the age of 15, enterprise size, types of work) using several variables. When evaluating working conditions, list which was produced by Eurpean Council Occupational Safety And Health Comission is used and a scale that has 10 division is developed and it is presented in the appendix. This scale(Enterprise Occupational Safety And Health Indicator) is formed of points from 1 to 5 representing bad and good and each division is given points and then the average of the 10 division is taken.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The study reveals that the greatest difference in between enterprises employing and not employing children is seen in this 5 sub-indicators: 1-Employer attitude 2-Measures taken against risk of fire 3-Ergonomic conditions 4-Working conditions 5-Machines and workplace equipments. (p.16)

Some Key Words:

working children, working conditions, occupational safety and health

Fişek, A.G. (1992); “Mortgage To Countries’ Future: Child Labour”, Petrol-İş ’92 Torch, p. 481-494


Fişek, A.G. (1992); “Mortgage To Countries’ Future: Child Labour”, Petrol-İş ’92 Torch, p. 481-494.

Number of Works Cited: 11

Scope:

After determining the importance of child labour within the international human rights documents from a historical perspective the article continues with the consideration of Turkey in this framework. The child labour concept and its compatibility with human rights issue is taken up within the 3 main human rights tools (The right to work in a healthy and safe place, education right, the right to satisfy basic human needs). The distruction that was caused in the society because of the use of child labur is a mortgage on future and the efforts to recover the situtaion can not be seperated from the efforts to enhance the human rights concepts are discussed in the result and evaluation part.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Either to contribute to family income, or to get rid of future needs child labour(apprenticeship) is an economic concept. The early entry of children into labour markets which has a more economic explanation, withdraws children from education which will make it impossible for them to reach the maximum of their skills. Therefore, child labour can not be considered as a part of the socialising process. (p.486)

Some Key Words:

working conditions, child labour, human rights, socialisation, international regulation

Fişek, A.G.( 1988 ); “ Working Life and Child”, Second National Occupational Health Congress, 4-7 April 1988, Ankara, p. 253-264


Fişek, A.G.( 1988 ); “ Working Life and Child”, Second National Occupational Health Congress, 4-7 April 1988, Ankara, p. 253-264.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The report aims to explain the problems caused by the presence of child labour in the professional life depends on the research done to reveal the medico-social conditions of the child workers. The survey is done in four different cities including Ankara, Eskişehir, Bursa, Kızılcahamam on 379 child workers and 297 students as the control group and it reveals the differences of these two groups of children in terms of the world they live in. These are the topics of the article: The effect of background on child labour, the reasons for heading towards labour force, the working conditions of children, their level of knowledge on the rights they have, first job and changing job, child workers’ growth, diet and health conditions. And the article ends with the evaluation chapter.

An Excerpt from the Article:

These findings shows the role of rural effect on the group that are trying to maintain a profession using traditional methods; Also it underlines that child labour is an important tool in breaking the circle who would like to escape from the rural life. But, this group which did not take any industrial culture and who confronts science and technology already are more exposed to high risks and have difficulties in adapting the changing conditions of life are the facts that should be considered in terms of social policy very briefly. (p.254)

Some Key Words:

working children, working conditions, child health, changing jobs

Fişek, A.G.(1979); “Protection of Chldren and Youth In Terms Of Human Rights’’, Okul Defteri Magazine, July, Issue No. 3, p. 19-21


Fişek, A.G.(1979); “Protection of Chldren and Youth In Terms Of Human Rights’’, Okul Defteri Magazine, July, Issue No. 3, p. 19-21.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The article is more law based. The reasons why children enter the working life is explained and then the development of social policy tools against child labour is discussed and national and international regulations are quoted. Also findings of a research made in Ankara Iskitler and Industrial Bazaar on apprentices and young workers and SSK’s (Social Insurance Institution) occupational accidents and diseases statistics are given.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The way to keep children and adolescents away from the protective umbrella of Labour Law is found in our country. The majority of this group is employed as apprentices. Some appliers of the law discuss if the new Apprentice and Master Workman Legislation is apart of the labour Law or not. This new law defines these apprentices who are required to take training at most of 8 hours as students. And when other aspects of this law is inspected it gives the impression that it is legislated not to protect the apprentices or the experineced apprentices to protect the employers. (p.20)

Some Key Words:

working conditions, apprentices, apprentice training, occupational accident, occupational disease, national regulation

Fişek, A.G.(1979); “Protection Of Children and Adolescents in Working Life”, Çalışma Dergisi, Magazine January-April, p. 3-36

Fişek, A.G.(1979); “Protection Of Children and Adolescents in Working Life”, Çalışma Dergisi, Magazine January-April, p. 3-36.

 

Number of Works Cited: 14

 

Scope:

Article depends the organisation of craftsmen and tradesmen on institutions like Akhism and Guilds and talks about the preventive social policy mesaures in the capitalist era. Also the legal issues take an important place in the article and the ‘Apprentice, Experinced Apprentice and Foreman’ legislation is discussed in depth. Also the profiles of tradesmen and craftsmen also took an important place in the article.

 

An Excerpt from the Article:

First of all it is important to determine which part of the working life this new legislation is going to be more effective. The type of education which depends on the apprentice, experienced apprentice and master workman is a more middle age era way. Although it was left in the middle ages this way of relationship still persists still in some countries. We think that this type of relationship cannot live in any other occupation apart from tradesmen and craftsmen. And we can see that the new legislation carries signs that it is made under the light of this thought. (p.12)

 

Some Key Words:

working conditions, Apprentice-Experineced Apprentice Master Workman System, trade-craftsmen, national regulation

Aktaş, A.M.; Arıkan, Ç.; “Socio-Demographic Features of the Youngsters Working as Apprentices and Their Feelings About Their Occupation’’, Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Hizmetler Yüksekokulu Magazine, Volume: 11, Issue No. 1-2-3, p. 65-83


Aktaş, A.M.; Arıkan, Ç.; “Socio-Demographic Features of the Youngsters Working as Apprentices and Their Feelings About Their Occupation’’, Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Hizmetler Yüksekokulu Magazine, Volume: 11, Issue No. 1-2-3, p. 65-83.

Number of Works Cited: 25

Scope:

The problems that might arise from the work and social environment of these apprentice youngsters are invetigated. To complete the study 277 adolescents attending Siteler Apprentice Training Center and working at siteler as apprentices are examined to find out their soci-demographic characteristics, their friend and occupational relations and their psychological moods.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The majority of them believe that problems with their master workman can be solved with open communication opportunities. The minority of them think that the only solution can be to change the job. Rather than solving the problems they prefer to change the job and the environment which is a more fundamental solution. The number that wants master workman’s bullying to be over for better relations is rather low. (p.79)

Some Key Words:

working children, working conditions, apprentice training, socio-demographic level, masterworkman-apprentice relationship

Ministry of labour and Social Security(1997), “Working Children News Bulletin”, Issue No.3, Ankara


Ministry of labour and Social Security(1997), “Working Children News Bulletin”, Issue No.3, Ankara.

Number Of Works Cited: 6

Scope:

Erhan Batur gives an extract of the European Council’s Fight Against Child Labour Advice

and also discusses the parliament’s decision taken on the third term general council in 1997. Ali Saraç’s article is on working environment and child labour which presents childhood, the working conditions of children and the negative effects of the physical, menthal and ergonomic factors evident in the atmosphere. It is stated that the effects of these conditions barriers the ethical, menthal and physical growth of children. The importance of keeping away children from work is also discussed whereby they can attend schools and get the education essential for them selves to have bright futures.

Some Key Words:

working conditions, child workers, ILO-IPEC, international regulation