Child Labour Around The World And in Turkey


Title of the Study: Child Labour Around The World And in Turkey

Type of the Study: Report Book

Author of the Study: TİSK/TÜRK-İŞ

 

Presentation,,

Year/Place of Publication: June 2007, Ankara.

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 48

Purpose: To explain child labour and present the works of TİSK and TÜRK-İŞ on child labour.

 

Content: The state of child labour in the world is explained in the first part. The state of child labour is presented in the second part. Projects of TÜRK-İŞ and TİSK about combatting child labour are discussed in the third chapter. Activites about social support centers for child workers are given in the fourth part.

Method: Presentations and reports are gathered.

Excerpt: The three sectors considered as one of the components of worst forms of child labour(woodworking, street children, migrant seasonal agricultural workers) are included in this project. (p.36)

Some keywords: working children, TİSK, TÜRK-İŞ, ILO, social support center

 

Employers Associations Role in Fighting Against Child Labour: Sharing Experinces in The Field of Child Labour, Inter-Regional Conference Report.


Title of the Study: Employers Associations Role in Fighting Against Child Labour: Sharing Experinces in The Field of Child Labour, Inter-Regional Conference Report.

Type of the Study: Conference Report

Author of the Study: Tisk/ILO

 

Presentation,,

Year/Place of Publication: September 2007, Ankara

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 60

Purpose: Sharing knowledge between regional countries about child labour.

 

Content: In the first part there is the speaches of the representatives of Ministyr of Labour, ILO and TİSK. Afterwards these titles are discussed: Employers role in fighting against child labour, child labour in agriculture, country report on combat against child labour-Türkiye-Moldova-Azerbaijan, works of IOE, round table discussion on child labour, child labour projects in some selected countries- Albania-Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan-Moldova-Tajikistan-Türkiye-Ukraine-Uzbekistan.

Method: Presentations and reports are gathered.

Excerpt: 14 employers associations that were present in the conference held in İstanbul on sharing the experinces in fighting against child labour, declares that they are against child labour and they see this as a very serious problem which should be eliminated.

Some keywords: working children, TİSK, ILO, regional confernce

 

Working Children 2006


Title of the Study: Working Children 2006

Type of the Study: Research Report

Author of the Study: TÜİK

 

Presentation,,

Year/Place of Publication: Ankara, 2006

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 82

Purpose: The principal objective of the survey is to obtain a nationwide database on working children and depict the distrubution of working children by sectors they are employed and respective working conditions as well as social, demographic and economic characters.

Content: In the first chapter historical tables for 1994-2006 period are given. In the second chapter these subjects are discussed under the title evalutaion: demography, education status, employment status, income status, reasons, working hours, domestic workers.

 

Method: Since child labour survey was conducted with households who were selected as sample under household labour force survey, the sampling design is naturally based on the sampling design relevant to the latter. The sampling in household labour force survey was designed over a period of five years comprising 3-monthly quarters and as susceptible to field practice each and every month. The method involves two stages. It is based on a two stages stratified clustered probability sample involving eight sub-samples.

 

Excerpt: Examining the reason of working in economic activity as revealed by the results of the 2006 child labour survey, contribute to household income is observed as the most frequently stated reason (%51.1). Then come learning a profession, building skills for a job by %17.4 and contribute to economic activities of household members by %12.9.

Some keywords: Working children, TÜİK

 

 

 

The Medico-Social Problems of Working Children


Title of the Study: The Medico-Social Problems of Working Children

 

Type of the Study: Research –Evaluation Report ( The research is supported by Meawards)

Authors of the Study: Dr. Gürhan Fişek

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: February 1986, Ankara

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 146

Purpose: The aim of the study is to find out and to reveal the medico-social problems and states of the working children(according to the Turkish Labour Code, ones who are under the age of 18) and compare them with the ones attending schools.

Content: In the introduction part child labour in the worls and in Turkey is explained from a historical perspective. Also the national regulations concerning the subject is touched. In the second chapter methodology is discussed. In the third chapter findings are given in detail and briefly outlined. The findings are on; personal properties of the experimentals, working life of the children, nurtition and health status, friendship and vacational activities, their future expectations. Fourth chapter is the discussion one and the fifth chapter is the conclusion one.

Method: The research is based on field survey where indexation and interview methods are used. Experimentals are chosen from 2 different groups within this research that is conducted to reveal the medico-social problems of the working children. The first group consists of children that are fully seperated from the educational life. The second group is chosen as the control group where children are ateending schools. Data of personal properties of the experimentals, working life of the children, ocuupational safety and health knowledge, working conditions, nurtition and health status, friendship and vacational activities, their future expectations are obtained. Working children survey is formed and implemented to be able to make comparisons. Also comparisons are made using different indexation techniques.

Excerpt: In both these educational chains, medico-social organisations should be structured and even if there is one, its capacity should be built. These organisatons should have a health approach where their occupational and living environment with their leisure time are seen as a whole. Therefore, there will be organisations that will take the solution of medico-social problems of the working children as their main priority.

Some keywords: Working children, medico-social problems, apprenticeship training centers, national regulation

 

 

I was a Child, I was Little….. Child Labour in Turkey during 1920-1960

Title of the Study: I was a Child, I was Little…..

Child Labour in Turkey during 1920-1960

 

Type of the Study: Discussion Paper

 

Author of the Study: Ahmet Makal

 

Presentation,,

Year/Place of Publication: Ankara, 2006

 

Language of the Study: Turkish

 

Number of Pages: 41

 

Purpose: To discuss child labour in Turkey between 1920 1960 within legal, sectoral and economic terms.

 

Content: The paper has six parts. The first is on conceptual framework of child labour. Second part is about the legal and regulational framework. Quantity of working children is outlined in the third part. The sectoral distrubution of working children is discussed in the fourth part. Working conditions of child workers are highlighted in the fifth part. And sixth part is on international regulations and norms.

 

Method: Literature scanning method is used.

 

Excerpt: It can be clearly pointed out that there is a considerable amount of child labour in different sectors of the economy including small and medium enterprises between the years 1920-1960 in Turkey.

 

Some keywords: working children, working conditions, international regulation

 

Child Labour in Turkey

Title of the Study: Child Labour in Turkey

 

Type of the Study: Report-Research

 

Authors of the Study: Tuncer Bulutay

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: 1995, Ankara

 

Language of the Study: Turkish

 

Number of Pages: 96

 

Purpose: To explain the subject of child labour in Turkey, to highlight the state of child labour with the use of DIE data and to outline solution suggestions for the problem.

 

Content: There are 3 parts in this work. In the first part reasons of child labour are underlined. Second part consists of data that explains the situation of working children in Turkey. Also educational status of children are given. In the third chapter, combatting child labour issue is discussed in depth.

 

Method: Docuement scanning method is applied and DIE data is used.

 

 

Excerpt: We think that the principal instruments in combatting child labour in Turkey can be collected in 4 groups: i) Development of the economy. ii) Improvement in the health of the social and cultural atmosphere. iii) Enforcement and betterment of legislation. İv) Progress in education. (p.61)

 

Some Keywords: working children, child abuse, socio-economic level

 

 

 

The Medico-Social Problems of Working Children


Title of the Study: The Medico-Social Problems of Working Children

 

Type of the Study: Research –Evaluation Report ( The research is supported by Meawards)

Authors of the Study: Dr. Gürhan Fişek

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: February 1986, Ankara

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 146

Purpose: The aim of the study is to find out and to reveal the medico-social problems and states of the working children(according to the Turkish Labour Code, ones who are under the age of 18) and compare them with the ones attending schools.

Content: In the introduction part child labour in the worls and in Turkey is explained from a historical perspective. Also the national regulations concerning the subject is touched. In the second chapter methodology is discussed. In the third chapter findings are given in detail and briefly outlined. The findings are on; personal properties of the experimentals, working life of the children, nurtition and health status, friendship and vacational activities, their future expectations. Fourth chapter is the discussion one and the fifth chapter is the conclusion one.

Method: The research is based on field survey where indexation and interview methods are used. Experimentals are chosen from 2 different groups within this research that is conducted to reveal the medico-social problems of the working children. The first group consists of children that are fully seperated from the educational life. The second group is chosen as the control group where children are ateending schools. Data of personal properties of the experimentals, working life of the children, ocuupational safety and health knowledge, working conditions, nurtition and health status, friendship and vacational activities, their future expectations are obtained. Working children survey is formed and implemented to be able to make comparisons. Also comparisons are made using different indexation techniques.

Excerpt: In both these educational chains, medico-social organisations should be structured and even if there is one, its capacity should be built. These organisatons should have a health approach where their occupational and living environment with their leisure time are seen as a whole. Therefore, there will be organisations that will take the solution of medico-social problems of the working children as their main priority.

Some keywords: working children, medico-social problems, national regulation

 

The CLM (Child Labour Monitoring) in İzmir


Title of the Study: The CLM (Child Labour Monitoring) in İzmir.

Type of the Study: Research – Evaluation Report (The work has been conducted within the scope of the ILO-IPEC Programme.)

Author of the Study: Dr. Dilek Cindoğlu

 

Presentation,,

Year/Place of Publication: 2003, Ankara

Language of the Study: English

Number of Pages: 39

Purpose: Description of the method used within the frame of the programme for the elimination of child labour in some selected sectors in Izmir during the years 2000-2003.

 

Content: Targets, method and results of the programme conducted in Izmir within the frame of the ILO-IPEC programme have been revealed. In this framework, 5890 children under the age of 15 working in car repair works, textile sector and shoe production sector are removed from working life and enrolled with relevant schools to make sure they get the necessary education.

Method: Prepared as a report, this publication discusses the method followed within the frame of the programme to eliminate child labour in relevant sectors between the years 2000-2003 in Izmir. Questions asked in questionnaires and method used is given at the end of the report.

Excerpt: The formation of this type of collaborative working group on child labour enhanced the level of institutional support available and ensured that referrals were well-coordinated at an operational level. (p.15)

Some keywords: working children, apprentice training, child labour survey

 

Sunal, O.(2006); ‘‘Geographical Atlas of Child Labour’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No.87, July-August


Sunal, O.(2006); ‘‘Geographical Atlas of Child Labour’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No.87, July-August.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

Child labour is seen in almost all parts of the world, not just in certain regions. Causes of child labour and the sectors children are working are varying. In this study conducted utilizing many resources, it has been showed on maps in which jobs and in what ratios children worked in any given geography.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Everyday billions of people in the world are eating chocolates, enjoying their coffees and receiving their engagement rings in their happiest moments of life. If they could know the realities then things might have been different. The amount of these children living in utter poverty and pain outnumber the population of whole Europe. And could the possible responsibles from this exploitation be the new emperors of the world in an era called the “New World Order”. Today while it is possible to find enormous amonut of documents for child labour in developing countries, the developed ones shine like a diamond. The price to be paid by the exploiters should be at least as much as the shame of the existence of the expolitation.

Some Keywords:

working children

 

Oktay, N.(2000); ‘‘Effects of Working Children on the Economy: A Field Survey on Children Working in Small-Sized Enterprises in Adana’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No. 48, January-February


Oktay, N.(2000); ‘‘Effects of Working Children on the Economy: A Field Survey on Children Working in Small-Sized Enterprises in Adana’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No. 48, January-February.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The study has been conducted with the purpose of determining the contributions of children working in Adana on the economy. For this purpose, face to face surveys have been made with working children aged 0 and 16 and their employers working at the car-painting-hood-repair workshops in the city. The survey has been made by the researcher; and 45 questions asked to working children, and 35 questions asked to their employers. 144 subjects have been interviewed with in more than 50 workplaces; 103 of them being workmen, and 41 employers.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Working children use one-day holiday a week, and they do not have annual leaves. It is seen that 88,3% of them have made no agreements with the employer before their employment. These children have no social security as well as their parents and siblings. 70,9% of them have not visited the doctor during the time they worked. There is at least one more person working in an informal sector in the children’s houses. Again, a majority of them have faced one or more acts of violence at the workplace. 65,9% of employers are elementary school graduates. 95% are doing their jobs for more than 5 years. (p.10)

Some Keywords:

working children, economic contribution, informal sector, social security

 

Mustafayeva, U.(2003); ‘‘Children in Working Life in Crimea’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No. 67, March-April


Mustafayeva, U.(2003); ‘‘Children in Working Life in Crimea’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No. 67, March-April.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

First, brief information is given about Crimea. Then, the reasons underlying increased child labour in the region probed into and change of regime and collapse of socialism have been focused on as one of the most important causes. The following section compares the past and present situation. The effects of the collapse of social state in time, and removal of social security opportunities for miserable and poor people with the new free regime are argued. Besides, the subsequent paragraphs discuss in which jobs the children in Crimea are working at.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Here, it is time to touch on the issue of social security. If the child is working, this generally shows the family’s helplessness. The child is either in a family with too many children, or the father or mother is not working (may be unemployed, patient); or there is an alcoholic person in the family etc. The list may be extended. However, as far as we could see, these are generally families with low income, and in need of social aid. There was a very strong social security system during the time of the Soviet Union. (p.9)

Some Keywords:

working children, social security

 

Gürçay, C.; Kumaş, H.(2001); ‘‘Profile of Employed Children in the World and in Turkey’’, (In: Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara, 2001


Gürçay, C.; Kumaş, H.(2001); ‘‘Profile of Employed Children in the World and in Turkey’’, (In: Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara, 2001.

 

Number of Works Cited: 31

Scope:

The study creates a profile aimed at working children after giving information about the quality and quantity of working children in the world and in Turkey. After the Introductory section, the study discusses children employed on contract. The reasons for child employment have been argued and a panoramic look has been put on children employed in the world. Then the focus is turned to the children employed in Turkey and to their ages and job sectors. The study employs the child labour survey data of DIE for the years 1994 and 1999.

An Excerpt from the Article:

One of the points of the problem is that the rules aimed at the working life in the international dimension have been created in a manner encompassing all nations. Difference of development levels and internal dynamics of nations make arrangements considering local conditions necessary. And this puts into the agenda the working life practices much lower than international arrangements and light and heavy works classification and efforts to address the issue in the legal dimension.

Some Keywords:

minimum age, working children, child labour survey, international regulation

Erder, S.(2005); ‘‘Working Children: Apprentice or Worker?’’Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.38-44


Erder, S.(2005); ‘‘Working Children: Apprentice or Worker?’’Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.38-44.

Number of Works Cited: 11

Scope:

The article discusses some trends observed in a field study conducted some 10 years ago about working children. In this study, which is relation-seeking rather than representative, some observations are made about the positions of children working in Istanbul. This field study is based on interviews made in 1993 with children and their employers in Istanbul Umraniye small-sized industrial workplaces; and interviews and observations made with the ‘‘Apprentice Training Center’’ in this region and some workplaces that have launched apprentice training initiatives at their workplaces.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The first point that attracted our attention during the study about working children was that they were not homogenous with regard to their poverty degree, family relationships, origins, working conditions and working motives of children. Likewise, the study conducted by Altıntaş in Ankara also emphasizes that children working on streets are not homogenous groups. Again, studies reveal that the experiences of female children in working life have clear differences compared to those of male children. (p.38)

Some Keywords:

family, working children, working conditions, apprentices, apprentice training, reasons of child labour, girl child labour, poverty

 

 

Dayıoğlu, M.(2005); ‘‘General Trends in Working Lives of Working Children’’, Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.45-50


Dayıoğlu, M.(2005); ‘‘General Trends in Working Lives of Working Children’’, Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.45-50.

Number of Works Cited: 3

Scope:

An article written based on a survey by DIE made in 1994 and 1999 and the author’s work titled ‘‘Gender Education and Child Labour in Turkey’’. Statistics are given and comparisons are made about working children. The subject has also been addressed from a gender point of view and important information is given about the ratios of male-female employment. Following sections discussed improvements on a sector basis, with the dimensions of the subject in the informal sector.

An Excerpt from the Article:

It is impossible to say that same level of improvement has occurred for children over the age of compulsory education. Although they have less presence in the working life, an important percentage of children between the ages 15 and 17 still continue working. (p.50)

Some Keywords:

gender discrimination, working children, child labour survey, informal sector

 

Başargan, H.N.; Kümbül, B.(2001); ‘‘A Look on the Issue of Working Children from A Family Perspective’’, (in the ‘Seminar on Working Children in Turkey’), DIE Publications, Ankara, p.137-161


Başargan, H.N.; Kümbül, B.(2001); ‘‘A Look on the Issue of Working Children from A Family Perspective’’, (in the ‘Seminar on Working Children in Turkey’), DIE Publications, Ankara, p.137-161.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The study first puts a definition of child based on the fact that the issue of working children might be approached differently by societies with different socio-economic structures, different cultures, and education levels, and comments are made about how the perception of child might be. After a detailed analysis about the value of children, starting from the definition of working child, topics like why children are obliged to work and which factors pushed them to the working life, focusing on the negative psychological influences created by working phenomenon on the psycho-social development of child. Finally, based on the fact that the family is an important determining factor on a child labour, some important results from a survey conducted on families of working children has been presented from a study made in İzmir within the scope of the ILO-IPEC project.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Aries connects his perception of childhood in such a way to the child’s full participation of adult life and this indirectly results from the structure of family and society at that time. Social life in the Medieval Ages was one that was very intensively experienced. (p.71)

Some Keywords:

family, working children, ILO-IPEC, socio-economic level

 

 

 

Balcı, Y.G.(2002); ‘‘A Different Dimension in Child Exploitation: Sexual Discrimination in Working Children’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No.61, March-April


Balcı, Y.G.(2002); ‘‘A Different Dimension in Child Exploitation: Sexual Discrimination in Working Children’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No.61, March-April.

Number of Works Cited: 14

Scope:

Child labor has been discussed from the sexuality point of view using the Child Labour Survey made by State Statistics Institute (DIE) in 1999. Using available official data, participation percentages of male and female children to the working life have been discussed, together with how these percentages changed with the progress of age.

An Excerpt from the Article:

As a result, upon examination of the 1999 Child Labour Survey and in the light of these findings, it is clearly seen that sexuality is a source of exploitation in addition to child labour. Effects of this exploitation take place in the long term. That female children work in selected jobs without the purpose of learning a profession and removing themselves from professional life in order to become a good wife and mother for cultural and socio-economic reasons in accordance with the role determined by the society and contributing the family and her own dowry cause them to remain as unqualified labour. (p.19)

Some Keywords:

family, gender discrimination, working children, child labour survey, child abuse, economic contribution, socio-economic level

 

Akter, E.İ.(2003); ‘‘World Child Labor Day:What is Happening in the World?’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No. 69, July-August


Akter, E.İ.(2003); ‘‘World Child Labor Day:What is Happening in the World?’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No. 69, July-August.

Number of Works Cited: 2

Scope:

A compilation has been made about child labor in the world. Situation in countries like Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, Philippines, and India is briefly summarized and press announcements of organizations like ILO, UNICEF, and Global March Save the Children concerned with June 12 are also included.

An excerpt from the article:

Philippines: Prime Minister of Philippines signed an act aiming to intimidate women and children traffickers with harsh punishments within the scope of initiatives to stop human trafficking. (p.19)

Some Keywords:

working children, child trafficking, ILO

Child Employment


Title of the Study: Child Employment

Type of the Study: Phd. Thesis

Author of the Study: Zafer Kaplan

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: İstanbul, 2001 (İstanbul University Institute of Social Sciences Department of Labour Economics and Industrial Relations)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 196

Purpose: Examination of child labour in different dimensions and demonstration of concrete cases for shedding light on what has to be done for the elimination of child labour in the future.

Content: Part one makes a description of basic concepts and gives definitions. Part two addresses the dimension of children’s rights. Part three examines the phenomenon of child employment in the scale of Turkey. Part four gives the field study conducted in İstanbul Eminönü district Sultanahmet neighborhood.

Method: Literature scanning and field study methods are used. The survey has been made on 80 children selling thins on streets by interview method. Focus is made to qualitative determinations instead of quantitative determinations.

Excerpt: The value of child varies by societies being traditional or industrial societies. With the industrialization of children, economic value of children, labor codes limiting child labour, compulsory education and social security measures reduce the potential economic value of the child, and increase the cost of child. (p.21)

Some keywords: working children, child rights, industrialisation, social security, national regulation

Determination of Effectivity of Apprentice Training With Regard to Vocational Training, Social Status and Occupational Risks


Title of the Study: Determination of Effectivity of Apprentice Training With Regard to Vocational Training, Social Status and Occupational Risks

Type of the Study: Preliminary Report

Authors of the Study: Ministry of Education Apprentice Training and General Education Directorate

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: May 1997, Ankara

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 35

Purpose: To gather and evaluate the data obtained from Ministry of Education Apprentice Training and General Education Directorate and ILO-IPEC joint survey in 35 cities and 47 Apprentice Training Centers.

Content: Preliminary Report

Method: 21789 apprentice student sample is formed by taking into account 47 Apprentice training Centers in 35 cities from 8 different occupations. Information is obtained from 11846 workplace where practical education is given to craftsmen. Also the observations of 633 trainers are added to the survey.

Excerpt: The question to determine the accidents that these apprentices were subject to reveals that %49,5 never had accidents and %30,6 had small scratches or injuries where there was no need of medical examination and %25,9 had accidents where their injuries were cured with ordinary medical examination.(p.16)

Some Keywords: working children, working conditions, apprentice training, occupational accident, crime

Working Children in Turkey Field Survey Preliminary Report


Title of the Study: Working Children in Turkey Field Survey Preliminary Report

Type of the Study: Field Survey Preliminary Report

Authors of the Study: Ministry of Labour and Social Security

Presentation

Year/Place of Publication: May 1994

Language of The Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 123

Purpose: To make inter-sectoral comparisons using the data obtained from the surveys conducted between February 1994 and March 1994 and to create a base for realistic solutions.

Content: The data(working conditions, socio-cultural characteristic, structural characteristics of the employers, apprenticeship evaluation, factors effecting risk conditions) observed from field surveys conducted by 7 groups in 7 different sectors(metal, woodwork, service, confection, textile, leather, automotive) are presented. Also observations, suggestions and determinations about occupational conditions are shared. The report enables readers to make sectoral comparisons.

Method: In total 738 workplaces are inspected, 1671 out of 3479 children, 712 out of 738 employer and 574 skilled craftsmen are questioned. Work groups are formed in 7 cities(Adana, Ankara, Antalya, Bursa, İstanbul, İzmir, Samsun). To be able to reach the workplaces some records and sweep net sources are used.

Excerpt: Within the program mentioned the reasons why children work, the occupational conditions, the policies that should be created to enhance the conditions of the working children are discussed in a meeting with the attendance of experts from ILO on October 1993. It is decided in this educational meeting that to be able to enhance the working conditions of the working children and to keep them away from working, the profiles of these children should be explained with related numbers concerning the situation. (p.5)

Some Keywords: working children, working conditions, ILO-IPEC

Zeytinoğlu, S.(1989) “The State Of Children In Turkey”, Child Policy of 1990’s Congress, DPT-UNICEF publications, Ankara, p. 241-252


Zeytinoğlu, S.(1989) “The State Of Children In Turkey”, Child Policy of 1990’s Congress, DPT-UNICEF publications, Ankara, p. 241-252.

Number of Works Cited: 10

Scope:

In the presentation, a panoromic vision of child labour in today’s world is pictured and the problem of child exploitation is discussed by defining the related concepts. The apprentice training, and the protection of children with legal regulations and their effectivity and defects are explained. Also suggestions to the problems of working children are presented.

An Exscerpt from the Article:

In today’s world millions of children are exploited in situations far worse than taking part in simple family labour division. Within the industrialisation process masses of people migrated from rural areas to cities and the ineffective social services to the poor and insufficeint employment opportunities for survival resulted in the participation of children in workforce outside of the family. (p.242)

Some Key Words:

family, working children, apprentice training, apprenticeship, child abuse, migration

 

Türkmen, A.E.(1993); “Nutrition of Working Children Ages 12-18”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine May, Issue No. 8, p. 61-63


Türkmen, A.E.(1993); “Nutrition of Working Children Ages 12-18”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine May, Issue No. 8, p. 61-63.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The period of adolescence and nutrition is discussed and findings of researches made in Antalya and Diyarbakır industrial sites are mentioned. Nutritional states of adolscencents are taken as a subject.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Some of the children are secondary school students and some are adolescent workers. The study shows that both groups have nutritional problems. Especially apprentices do not consume enough amount of energy, their animal protein intake is low and they can’t meet their vitamin and mineral needs with the diets they have. These children have these complaints after the end of their schhol day or work hours: headache, dizyness, feeling cold, sweating, attention deficit disorder and etc. The reasons of these problems are insufficient and unsystematic nutrition. (p.61)

 

Some Key Words:

diet, working children, apprentices, child health, adolescence

Özbay, H., N. Şahin vd., “Personality Image at Adolesence: Comparison Between working and Studying Adolescents’’, Türk Psikiyatri Magazine, Ankara, 1991, Volume:7, Issue No. 2, p. 82-96


Özbay, H., N. Şahin vd., “Personality Image at Adolesence: Comparison Between working and Studying Adolescents’’, Türk Psikiyatri Magazine, Ankara, 1991, Volume:7, Issue No. 2, p. 82-96.

Number of Works Cited: 22

Scope:

This research is made to find out how youngsters spend their adolscence period. There are two groups compared in this study. One group selected using half-random sample technique from a group of adolescents working between the ages 12-22 and the other group is selected from the same socio-economic backgrounds which attend schools so that comparisons can be made from an age range of 11-21. It is found that %17 are having real diificulties in this period. Also the mixed characteristics of this period is tried to outlined.

 

An Excerpt from the Article:

In theory, the findings of the scales used in this research which measures behaviorial, emotional,acquaintance and vegetativesigns are expected to be realted with each other. Results obtained using Offer Scale which shows the self-ego image outlines how people evaluate and generalise themselves personally. People who evaluate themselves more positively is believed to have less depression and concern signs.The total points obtained from the scales are used to compare the working and the studying groups. (p.90)

Some Key Words:

personality image, working children, child development, depression, adolescence, socio-economic level

Mangır M.; Aral N.; Köksal A.(1993); ”Reasons For Working Of The Children Attending Apprentice Training Centers”, Kültür Gençlik Magazine, January-April, Ministry of Culture, Ankara, p. 43-45


Mangır M.; Aral N.; Köksal A.(1993); ”Reasons For Working Of The Children Attending Apprentice Training Centers”, Kültür Gençlik Magazine, January-April, Ministry of Culture, Ankara, p. 43-45.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

Children that attend Siteler Apprentice Training Center from metal, upholstery and woodwork sectors are selected using simple random sampling model in pairs of 60. It is found that although economic contribution to family, and lack of education opportunities are factors effecting child labour the main reason is unemployment and poverty related to this. The necessitiy of the active participation of the society for children’s escape from the negative working conditions and for becoming ones that can safely look at the future and who are fully emotionally, methally and socially developed are emphasised.

An Excerpt from the Article:

But unemployment, and poverty caused as a conseqounce of this fact lies in the base of fundamental reasons. Therefore, studies should be done to overcome unemployment and preventive measures should be taken. (p.45)

Some Key Words:

working children, working conditions, apprentice training, apprenticeship, unemployment, poverty

 

 

Koçak, A. (1994); “Smoking Habits Among Working Children”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, May-June, Issue No. 14, p. 25-31


Koçak, A. (1994); “Smoking Habits Among Working Children”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, May-June, Issue No. 14, p. 25-31.

Number of Works Cited: 5

Scope:

After discussing smoking habits of the working children, behaviorial and attitude change towards the subject is explained. A training program about the negative aspects of smoking and an action suggestion is included in the article.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Working children apart from the insufficient working conditions are also under the social and cultural risks. The wandering, entering into different environmet and acquiring new friend needs of children are restricted in working life. The pyscho-social development is incomplete and their needs are not covered sufficiently. As a sign of lost of childhood identity, smoking is a risk factor. The protection of working children from these factors can only be maintained by restoring their child identity by tieing up childhood values and concepts to them. Because of this reason multi- dimensional researches, studies and programs that will be conducted carry a big importance. (p.31)

Some Key Words:

working children, working conditions, child development, child identity, cigarette addiction in children

Fişek, A.G. (1998); “ Ending Child labour : Differences Between Girls and Boys”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine , January-February, Issue No. 36, p. 2-4


Fişek, A.G. (1998); “ Ending Child labour : Differences Between Girls and Boys”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine , January-February, Issue No. 36, p. 2-4.

Number of Works Cited: 3

Scope:

The main differnces in the boy and girl child labour is presented within working children’s emotional status acoording to gender, families attitude towrads reasons of child labour, gender distribution of the amount of wages that are transferred to the household by the working children (14-15 ages) framework. Also subjects like if children’s consent was taken when they start working and changing jobs are discussed in the article. The data used in this article are obtained from the surveys conducted during Fişek Institute’s field work that took place in Denizli in 1996. The population of the survey are children attending apprentice education center. All of them are interviewed and their health examinations are done. And then from the interview cards girls and boys that have the same age and same background are selected as samples for the survey.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The conditions that change job into torture and conditions that deter little girls from work should be inspected. One of the leading reason is the strict discipline attitude rather than a psycologic approach that would enrich the working life. Another one is the increase of the job deterring pressure of wedding as age rises traditionally. Another important fact is sexual harrassment apart from the hard and unhealthy working conditions. This torture deepens and it is hidden from the families, because these girls fear that their families might deter themselves from their jobs. So, this makes these girls think that it is imposible for them to continue working for all their lives. (p.4)

Some Key Words:

working children, apprentice training, girl child labour

Fişek, A.G.(1998); “The Development Of Employer Contribution to The Child Labour Problem”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, September-October, Issue No. 40, p. 2-6


Fişek, A.G.(1998); “The Development Of Employer Contribution to The Child Labour Problem”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, September-October, Issue No. 40, p. 2-6.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The child labour problem is discussed in terms of human rights; and the fact that the early entry of children in work life and withdrawing from educational life will leave the society with unskilled labour in the future is mentioned. The solution to child labour problem should be considered in short term and long term approaches; The question of what is the level of tolerance to child labour is answered by the ILO’s approach. Working children and adults are compared according to living and working conditions in the present and absent list; The importance of the legal regulations are emphasised although these should be internalised by both the workers and the employers. The success of Fişek Institute’s ‘‘soft negotiaiton’’ is touched. The fact that the society as a whole is responsible from child labour and the society owes a fidelity debt to these children is emphasised. The responsibilities of the employers to working children and the 2 projects carried out with employers and Fişek Institute (common occupational safety and health unit, working children health scanning) is also qouted. The article is ended with target, method and roadmap suggestions.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Poverty, lack of social security and education, future concerns about getting employed drives children in to work while the employers hire them because of need of cheap labour, traditional facts and desire to form a good team for production. As a consequence the society is responsible for the child labour problem. The contribution to the efforts of keeping a way children from the working life can not only be expected from the employers; also the the other classes of the society should give a hand as well. (p.5)

Some Key Words:

working children, smiling speech, ILO, occupational safety and health, social responsibility, debt of society, poverty

 

Fişek, A.G.(1996); “The Little Giant Men Of The Working Life”, Sürekli Tıp Eğitimi Magazine, April, Volume: 5, Issue No. 4, p. 116-120


Fişek, A.G.(1996); “The Little Giant Men Of The Working Life”, Sürekli Tıp Eğitimi Magazine, April, Volume: 5, Issue No. 4, p. 116-120.

Number of Works Cited: 9

Scope:

The article is heavily based on the earlier working children researches of A.Gühran Fişek. The societies genereal attitude towards child labour and the conditions of working children are discussed. In the section where reccommendations are given for actions to be taken to be able to pay the fidelity debt to the working children in Turkey, also information about health-social service supply model(Fişek Model)is presented.

An Excerpt from the Article:

According to us the society has a fidelity debt to apprentices. While their coevals study benefiting from public funds and live their childhood; others that had to enter the working life by leaving the school, join the production process actively and moreover loose their child identity and try to play the role of an adult. So, what we should discuss is how are we going to force the society to pay this fidelity debt. (p.116)

Somem Key Words:

working children, fişek model, medico-social problems, social responsibility

Fişek, A.G.; Taşyürek, M.(1995); “A Research Capturing Working Conditions In Small Enterprises Employing Children”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, September-October, Issue No. 22, p. 15-23


Fişek, A.G.; Taşyürek, M.(1995); “A Research Capturing Working Conditions In Small Enterprises Employing Children”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, September-October, Issue No. 22, p. 15-23

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

Working conditions in 126 enterprises that are participating in Health Service to Small Enterprises Employing Children project which is carried out by Fişek Institute in Ankara-Ostim Industrial Site is evaluated, and these conditions are compared(independent variables; if anyone employed under the age of 15, enterprise size, types of work) using several variables. When evaluating working conditions, list which was produced by Eurpean Council Occupational Safety And Health Comission is used and a scale that has 10 division is developed and it is presented in the appendix. This scale(Enterprise Occupational Safety And Health Indicator) is formed of points from 1 to 5 representing bad and good and each division is given points and then the average of the 10 division is taken.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The study reveals that the greatest difference in between enterprises employing and not employing children is seen in this 5 sub-indicators: 1-Employer attitude 2-Measures taken against risk of fire 3-Ergonomic conditions 4-Working conditions 5-Machines and workplace equipments. (p.16)

Some Key Words:

working children, working conditions, occupational safety and health

Fişek, A.G.(1993); “Children Are Flowers…..What About Apprentices?”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, May, Issue No. 8, p. 2-7


Fişek, A.G.(1993); “Children Are Flowers…..What About Apprentices?”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, May, Issue No. 8, p. 2-7.

Number of Works Cited: 3

Scope:

In this article the dimensions of the early entry of children into the labour markets is discussed and pointed out that they are working without the protection mechanisms that is required by the contemporary social system. Health problems unique to working children can only be solved with a universal health service web which guards the peculiar problems of the group. The view that making of working conditions of these apprentices more safe and healthy is the most appropriate point of intervention which will provide change in the society is claimed.

An Excerpt from the Article:

In societies where child labour is widely used, children and adults work next to each other and share the same problems. Some facts that are confronted in the work places detoriortes the health conditions of adults as well as the children. For example, the hydro chloric acid which is present at the environment efects adults’ lungs as much as the children’s. This means that these societies are not ready to incline to the subjects which poses a unique risk for children. So, every step taken to protect children in the working life will simultaneously provide benefits to adult workers. (p.3)

Some Key Words:

working children, child health, medico-social problems

Fişek, A.G.( 1988 ); “ Working Life and Child”, Second National Occupational Health Congress, 4-7 April 1988, Ankara, p. 253-264


Fişek, A.G.( 1988 ); “ Working Life and Child”, Second National Occupational Health Congress, 4-7 April 1988, Ankara, p. 253-264.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The report aims to explain the problems caused by the presence of child labour in the professional life depends on the research done to reveal the medico-social conditions of the child workers. The survey is done in four different cities including Ankara, Eskişehir, Bursa, Kızılcahamam on 379 child workers and 297 students as the control group and it reveals the differences of these two groups of children in terms of the world they live in. These are the topics of the article: The effect of background on child labour, the reasons for heading towards labour force, the working conditions of children, their level of knowledge on the rights they have, first job and changing job, child workers’ growth, diet and health conditions. And the article ends with the evaluation chapter.

An Excerpt from the Article:

These findings shows the role of rural effect on the group that are trying to maintain a profession using traditional methods; Also it underlines that child labour is an important tool in breaking the circle who would like to escape from the rural life. But, this group which did not take any industrial culture and who confronts science and technology already are more exposed to high risks and have difficulties in adapting the changing conditions of life are the facts that should be considered in terms of social policy very briefly. (p.254)

Some Key Words:

working children, working conditions, child health, changing jobs

Fırat, M.;(1998) “The State Of Working Children, Findings and Recommendations”, Third National Occupational Health Congress, TTB Central Council, October, Ankara, p. 357-370


Fırat, M.;(1998) “The State Of Working Children, Findings and Recommendations”, Third National Occupational Health Congress, TTB Central Council, October, Ankara, p. 357-370.

Number of Works Cited: 9

Scope:

The presentation emphasised the place of child labour in national and international regulations and cathegorised children according to field they work. Then the findings from the survey where 182 working children attending the Yenibosna East Industrial Site Apprentice Education Center and 170 children attending the Trade Lycee under the age of 15 are discussed. The ways to break the linkages between the chaines which makes child labour attractive and profitable are recommended in the end part of the presentation.

An Excerpt from the Article:

It is observed that working children frequently change their jobs. The main reason for this is the bad attitudes of elderly to themselves and not being able to communicate with the employers. 41% of them change their jobs solely for this reason. %19 change because of low wages and the dangerous and heavy nature of their jobs. (p.363)

Some Key Words:

working children, apprentices, child health

Baytemür M.; Fişek A.G.; Koçak A. (1994); “A Research On The Factors Effecting Smoking in the age range of 13-15”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, May-June, Issue No. 14, p. 33-38


Baytemür M.; Fişek A.G.; Koçak A. (1994); “A Research On The Factors Effecting Smoking in the age range of 13-15”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, May-June, Issue No. 14, p. 33-38.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The article is based on a survey conducted in Ankara Ostim Apprentice Training Center where 150 children were questioned in a poll to determine the cigarette addiction . From the survey made to outline the medico-social conditions of the same group, 10 independent variables are selected from the ready social cards of these group. Age-number of cigarettes, age-total amount of years of smoking, age-frequency of smoking, etnicity-smoking, working after school and tendency of smoking, staying out at nights and smoking, best friend’s employment status and smoking relations are revealed.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The research has shown that the tendency to smoke rises as the age increases in the working children group under 15 years of age. This proofs that there is great social risk in the occupational environment that these children work. Because smoking is considered as social determinant for children. (p.37)

Bazı Anahtar Sözcükler:

working children, cigarette addiction in children, medico-social problems

Çolak, Ö.F.(1999); “Child Labour and Education”, İşveren Magazine, Cilt 37, Issue No. 7, April, Ankara


Çolak, Ö.F.(1999); “Child Labour and Education”, İşveren Magazine, Cilt 37, Issue No. 7, April, Ankara.

Number of Works Cited: 4

Scope:

The compulsory and non-compulsory reasons why children work are listed and also the state of child labour in the country is evaluated under the guidance of DIE’s(National Statistical Institute) Child Labour Survey. It was underlined that the way to keep children out of work depends on the amount of money spend on education from the budget.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Taking into account that %65 of people employed between the ages 12-24 have primary school, 11% have secondary school and %16 percent have lycee diplomas, the 8 year compulsory education system should be implemented more effectively. Enhancement of the production system where it is difficult to create a job for the low human capital worker, will fasten the positive transformation. (p.13)

Some Key Words:

working children, apprentice training, reasons of child labour, child labour survey

Aktaş, A.M.; Arıkan, Ç.; “Socio-Demographic Features of the Youngsters Working as Apprentices and Their Feelings About Their Occupation’’, Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Hizmetler Yüksekokulu Magazine, Volume: 11, Issue No. 1-2-3, p. 65-83


Aktaş, A.M.; Arıkan, Ç.; “Socio-Demographic Features of the Youngsters Working as Apprentices and Their Feelings About Their Occupation’’, Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Hizmetler Yüksekokulu Magazine, Volume: 11, Issue No. 1-2-3, p. 65-83.

Number of Works Cited: 25

Scope:

The problems that might arise from the work and social environment of these apprentice youngsters are invetigated. To complete the study 277 adolescents attending Siteler Apprentice Training Center and working at siteler as apprentices are examined to find out their soci-demographic characteristics, their friend and occupational relations and their psychological moods.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The majority of them believe that problems with their master workman can be solved with open communication opportunities. The minority of them think that the only solution can be to change the job. Rather than solving the problems they prefer to change the job and the environment which is a more fundamental solution. The number that wants master workman’s bullying to be over for better relations is rather low. (p.79)

Some Key Words:

working children, working conditions, apprentice training, socio-demographic level, masterworkman-apprentice relationship

Ministry of Labour and Social Security(1997), “Working Children News Bulletin”, Issue No.2, January, Ankara.


Ministry of Labour and Social Security(1997), “Working Children News Bulletin”, Issue No.2, January, Ankara.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

Ministry’s National Committee Meeting held on 6.2.1997 and the evaluation of ILO-IPEC projects and the future plans for new projects are discussed. There is a news about the second meeting of the Advice Group that was held on 25th of March where the suggestions of workshop groups are exposed. Children working in the informal sector, apprentices and their legal and the administrative status which was emphasised in the group report is displayed. Kubilay Atasever’s TİSK and child labour article points the activities and vision of Tisk in this subject. Erhan Batur discusses the aork and child labour concepts and also talks about the ILO convention number 59.

Some Key Words:

working children, child abuse, informal sector, ILO-IPEC

Ministry of Labour and Social Security(1997), “Working Children News Bulletin”, Issue No.1, January, Ankara.


Ministry of Labour and Social Security(1997), “Working Children News Bulletin”, Issue No.1, January, Ankara.

Number of Works Cited: 7

Scope:

Within the framework of Ministry of Labour and Social Security Department of Working Children’s capacity building Advice Group meeting is discussed. In the following pages The Minister’s opening speach takes place. Ali Saraç’s article on child labour in the world and Turkey and activities to find solutions and to end it can be found in the later pages. Şule Mann’s article on ILO-IPEC and child labour reveals the state of working children in the world and in Turkey and provides information about the activites to stop child labour. Also UNICEF’s 1997 State of Children Report is presented. Erhan Batur’s article is on the dangers of child labour to the society as children are the future of mankind.

Some Key Words:

working children, ILO-IPEC