Oktay, N.(2000); ‘‘Effects of Working Children on the Economy: A Field Survey on Children Working in Small-Sized Enterprises in Adana’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No. 48, January-February


Oktay, N.(2000); ‘‘Effects of Working Children on the Economy: A Field Survey on Children Working in Small-Sized Enterprises in Adana’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No. 48, January-February.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The study has been conducted with the purpose of determining the contributions of children working in Adana on the economy. For this purpose, face to face surveys have been made with working children aged 0 and 16 and their employers working at the car-painting-hood-repair workshops in the city. The survey has been made by the researcher; and 45 questions asked to working children, and 35 questions asked to their employers. 144 subjects have been interviewed with in more than 50 workplaces; 103 of them being workmen, and 41 employers.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Working children use one-day holiday a week, and they do not have annual leaves. It is seen that 88,3% of them have made no agreements with the employer before their employment. These children have no social security as well as their parents and siblings. 70,9% of them have not visited the doctor during the time they worked. There is at least one more person working in an informal sector in the children’s houses. Again, a majority of them have faced one or more acts of violence at the workplace. 65,9% of employers are elementary school graduates. 95% are doing their jobs for more than 5 years. (p.10)

Some Keywords:

working children, economic contribution, informal sector, social security

 

Mustafayeva, U.(2003); ‘‘Children in Working Life in Crimea’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No. 67, March-April


Mustafayeva, U.(2003); ‘‘Children in Working Life in Crimea’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No. 67, March-April.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

First, brief information is given about Crimea. Then, the reasons underlying increased child labour in the region probed into and change of regime and collapse of socialism have been focused on as one of the most important causes. The following section compares the past and present situation. The effects of the collapse of social state in time, and removal of social security opportunities for miserable and poor people with the new free regime are argued. Besides, the subsequent paragraphs discuss in which jobs the children in Crimea are working at.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Here, it is time to touch on the issue of social security. If the child is working, this generally shows the family’s helplessness. The child is either in a family with too many children, or the father or mother is not working (may be unemployed, patient); or there is an alcoholic person in the family etc. The list may be extended. However, as far as we could see, these are generally families with low income, and in need of social aid. There was a very strong social security system during the time of the Soviet Union. (p.9)

Some Keywords:

working children, social security

 

Gelegen, D.(2001); ‘‘Child Labor’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, April, 6:42-46


Gelegen, D.(2001); ‘‘Child Labor’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, April, 6:42-46.

Number of Works Cited: 1

Scope:

Leon Warshaw’s article (Precarious Employment and Child Labour, Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety. International Labour Organization. Geneva, 1998.) has been translated to our language. The concepts of child labour and child slavery are explained. Then, the subject has been deepened based on ILO data. The following section discussed in which jobs the children worked and the potential damages of such jobs. The final section focused on economic and social results of child labour.

An Excerpt from the Article:

There are many forms of employment where the workers are subjected to impoverishment, exploitation and maltreatment; and where their health and safety are in great risks. Despite efforts by regulations, international conventions and treaties and solutions offered by them, it seems such working conditions will continue as long as human poverty, repression, misaccommodation and nutritional conditions remain the same. Workers also do not have the chance to benefit from information, education, skill gaining, protective and treating health services required to get rid of the bad situation they are in. (p.6)

Some Keywords:

working conditions, apprentices, child workers, child slavery, child exploitation, social security, poverty

 

Determining Nature of Poverty on Child Labour


Title of the Study: Determining Nature of Poverty on Child Labour

Type of the Study: Master Project without Dissertation

Author of the Study: Metin Turan

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: İzmir, 2006 (Dokuz Eylül University Institute of Social Sciences Department of Labour Economics and Industrial Relations)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 134

Purpose: Study of poverty and determining nature of poverty on child labour.

Content: Part one discusses poverty, child employment and relevant concepts. Part two discusses the grounds in which child employment has emerged, what its forms are and what results it has created. Part three discusses the dimensions of poverty in the world and in Turkey revealing the dimensions of poverty and child employment.

Method: Literature scanning method is used.

Excerpt: In general sense, the basic reason of child employment is poverty for the family. Generally, it is one of the ways of basic requirements of household. Children with families deprived of economic and social security are obliged to work to contribute to their families. In some cases, it is only the child who brings income to the family. (p.111)

Some keywords: child labour, reasons of child labour, social security, poverty

 

Child Employment


Title of the Study: Child Employment

Type of the Study: Phd. Thesis

Author of the Study: Zafer Kaplan

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: İstanbul, 2001 (İstanbul University Institute of Social Sciences Department of Labour Economics and Industrial Relations)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 196

Purpose: Examination of child labour in different dimensions and demonstration of concrete cases for shedding light on what has to be done for the elimination of child labour in the future.

Content: Part one makes a description of basic concepts and gives definitions. Part two addresses the dimension of children’s rights. Part three examines the phenomenon of child employment in the scale of Turkey. Part four gives the field study conducted in İstanbul Eminönü district Sultanahmet neighborhood.

Method: Literature scanning and field study methods are used. The survey has been made on 80 children selling thins on streets by interview method. Focus is made to qualitative determinations instead of quantitative determinations.

Excerpt: The value of child varies by societies being traditional or industrial societies. With the industrialization of children, economic value of children, labor codes limiting child labour, compulsory education and social security measures reduce the potential economic value of the child, and increase the cost of child. (p.21)

Some keywords: working children, child rights, industrialisation, social security, national regulation

Tezgider, G.(1979); “The State Of Children In The Professional Life”, Çalışma Dergisi, Magazine January-April, p. 57-66


Tezgider, G.(1979); “The State Of Children In The Professional Life”, Çalışma Dergisi, Magazine January-April, p. 57-66.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

In the article the differences in income distribution and the places where children work are discussed. The constitutional side of child labour is explained and the ruthless exploitation of children in labour markets and the destruction of physical, menthal and ethical development of children is emphasised. Also the working children are far away from school, social security and social protection. And it is also discussed if the student status given to apprentices helps the exploitation or not. Also the trade union membership and activities of apprentices are restricted.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Everday the need for determining the minimum age for working, the cutting of work hours and strengthening the law sanctions is discussed. But even these insufficient laws are not applied in practice. We can say that the laws which are violated the most are the ones concerning the protection against child labour. The children are forced to work for more than 8 hours and their health examinations are never done. Even if the sanctions of laws are ineffect there is not much to do as the employer has to pay 1500 liras if violated the laws. Child health is that cheap. (p.62)

Some Key Words:

minimum age, apprenticeship, child development, reasons of child labour, child health, trade unions, social security, national regulation