Taştı, E.(2001); ‘‘Trends Revealed by DIE Child LaboUr Surveys’’, (In: Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara, p.67-99


Taştı, E.(2001); ‘‘Trends Revealed by DIE Child LaboUr Surveys’’, (In: Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara, p.67-99.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

First part of the article gives an overview of population and workforce in Turkey. Second part makes general explanations about child labour surveys and touches the definitions and concepts used in the survey. Third part focuses on subjects like trends revealed by child labour surveys, living conditions of children, educational status of child, children working in economical jobs, children working in domestic works, reasons underlying child labour, working conditions and their expectations from the future.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The article makes an explanation about the child labour surveys conducted by DIE and trends revealed by these surveys are put forth comparatively. Because there are differences in scope between the October 1994 Child Labour Survey and October 1999 Child Labour Survey, comparisons are made on existing data for age groups 6-14 and 6-17. (p.71)

Some Keywords:

working conditions, child labour, reasons of child labour, child labour survey

 

 

 

 

 

Erder, S.(2005); ‘‘Working Children: Apprentice or Worker?’’Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.38-44


Erder, S.(2005); ‘‘Working Children: Apprentice or Worker?’’Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.38-44.

Number of Works Cited: 11

Scope:

The article discusses some trends observed in a field study conducted some 10 years ago about working children. In this study, which is relation-seeking rather than representative, some observations are made about the positions of children working in Istanbul. This field study is based on interviews made in 1993 with children and their employers in Istanbul Umraniye small-sized industrial workplaces; and interviews and observations made with the ‘‘Apprentice Training Center’’ in this region and some workplaces that have launched apprentice training initiatives at their workplaces.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The first point that attracted our attention during the study about working children was that they were not homogenous with regard to their poverty degree, family relationships, origins, working conditions and working motives of children. Likewise, the study conducted by Altıntaş in Ankara also emphasizes that children working on streets are not homogenous groups. Again, studies reveal that the experiences of female children in working life have clear differences compared to those of male children. (p.38)

Some Keywords:

family, working children, working conditions, apprentices, apprentice training, reasons of child labour, girl child labour, poverty

 

 

Çelik, A.(2005); ‘‘Child Labor from Past to Present’’, Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.51-57


Çelik, A.(2005); ‘‘Child Labor from Past to Present’’, Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.51-57.

Number of Works Cited: 23

Scope:

The introductory section describes the term child labour, revealing the reasons underlying. Following section discusses the struggle against child labour in its historical perspective including Charles Dickens. The profile of child labour has been drawn based on the data of International Labor Organization (ILO). Subsequent sections describe the issue of child labour in Turkey, discussing solutions in consideration of EU norms.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Elimination of child labour also took an important place among the demands of the period’s social opposition movements. The Chartist movement, which was a general vote movement initially and then transformed into a social content later included the prohibition of child employment among its demands in the 1840s. (p.52)

 

Some Keywords:

child labour, reasons of child labour, ILO, historical approach

 

Altıntaş, B.(2005); ‘‘Child Labour: Causes, Problems and Policy Management’’, Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.58-64


Altıntaş, B.(2005); ‘‘Child Labour: Causes, Problems and Policy Management’’, Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.58-64.

Number of Works Cited:-

Scope:

The study examines the different dimensions of child labour and reviews the policy perspective on child labour and working children based on the dynamic of struggle against child labour. Reasons underlying child employment, working conditions of children in dangerous working relations, description of risk factors related to the physical and psycho-social balances of children in the working life and determination of its possible effects on children are the purposes of this study. The study also aims the creation of a policy and action plan for working children.

 

An Excerpt from the Article:

The issue of child labour is an issue that has to be taken into consideration not just because many children are working illegally but also because their works are mostly dependent on exploitation. Children are being employed for social, political, cultural and economic reasons. (p.59)

Some Keywords:

working conditions, child workers, reasons of child labour, child exploitation, occupational hazards

 

Determining Nature of Poverty on Child Labour


Title of the Study: Determining Nature of Poverty on Child Labour

Type of the Study: Master Project without Dissertation

Author of the Study: Metin Turan

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: İzmir, 2006 (Dokuz Eylül University Institute of Social Sciences Department of Labour Economics and Industrial Relations)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 134

Purpose: Study of poverty and determining nature of poverty on child labour.

Content: Part one discusses poverty, child employment and relevant concepts. Part two discusses the grounds in which child employment has emerged, what its forms are and what results it has created. Part three discusses the dimensions of poverty in the world and in Turkey revealing the dimensions of poverty and child employment.

Method: Literature scanning method is used.

Excerpt: In general sense, the basic reason of child employment is poverty for the family. Generally, it is one of the ways of basic requirements of household. Children with families deprived of economic and social security are obliged to work to contribute to their families. In some cases, it is only the child who brings income to the family. (p.111)

Some keywords: child labour, reasons of child labour, social security, poverty

 

Importance of Child Employment and Child Labour from the Perspective of Human Resources Management in the World and in Turkey


Title of the Study: Importance of Child Employment and Child Labour from the Perspective of Human Resources Management in the World and in Turkey

Type of the Study: Master Thesis

Author of the Study: Ömür Oy

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: İstanbul, September 2001 (İstanbul University, Institute of Social Sciences Department of Human Resources Management)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 154

Purpose: The basic target of the study is to demonstrate the wearing nature of child employment that will damage development of future workforce, that is the children, in the future.

 

Content: Part one gives a detail of the place of children in working life. This part discusses basic information about working children and workplaces and working conditions of working children. Part two discusses the causes of child labour and the place of child labour in the legal system. Part three discusses the international dimension of child labour and national and international projects aimed at the improvement of child labour. Final part focuses on the plans to struggle with child labor.

Method: Types of child labour is examined under 4 groups and negative effects on children in each group are examined in their own dynamics. Emphasis is made on the causes of inability to end child labour, and by utilizing results of certain studies, and problems caused against the struggle against child labour are probed into.

Excerpt: While the number of children under 15 working in industrial jobs in the USA was 1.5 millions in 1850, this figure reached 2 millions in 1910. Businessmen liked the idea of hiring children. Children worked on lower wages compared to adults in jobs requiring no skills. Besides, small hands of children tended to better grasp small tools and small machinery accessories. (p.7)

Keywords: child labour, reasons of child labour, human resources, international regulation

 

 

Child Labour in Leather Sector in the World and Turkey Scale


Title of the Study: Child Labour in Leather Sector in the World and Turkey Scale

Type of the Study: Phd. Thesis

Author of the Study: Ahmet Kemerli

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: İstanbul, 2001 (İstanbul University Institute of Social Sciences Department of Labour Economics and Industrial Relations)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 167

Purpose: Discussion of child labour with regard to child development and analytical examination of factors determining labour. Examination of the current situation of child labour in the world by sectors on country basis

 

Content: The study has four parts. Titled, Child Development and Child Law, the first part focuses on the concept of child. Child labour and factors determining child labour are discussed in the second part. Third part titled Child Labour in the World gives an overview of child labour. Fourth part titled Child Labour in Turkish Leather Sector and Field Study focuses on the structural elements of child labour.

Method: Literature scanning and field survey methods are used. Excerpts are made from DIE surveys conducted in 1994 aimed at children.

Excerpt: Many children work and study at the same time. This is because school hours and number of school days in developing countries is very low. For example, within the frame of IPEC programme, in a study made in shoemaking sector in Brazil it has been found that most of the children attend school and work about 8 hours a day. (p.68)

Some keywords: child labour, child development, reasons of child labour, child labour survey, ILO-IPEC, national regulation

 

 

 

 

 

Child Labour in Turkey


Title of the Study: Child Labour in Turkey

Type of the Study: Master Thesis

Author of the Study: Cengiz Çınar

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: Ankara, 2003 (TODAİE Public Administration Programme)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 80

Purpose: To discuss the historical development in Turkey and the use of child labour in today’s world.

Content: Part one discusses the concepts about the subject. Part two discusses the historical development of the problem of working children and national and international regulations about working children. Part three discusses the forms of utilization of child labour in our country, by studying existing researches and studies, and efforts are made to explain the situation of working children.

Method: Literature scanning method is used.

Excerpt: The reason child labour is used in such high rates in this period was low payment by employers compared to adults and increasing their profits. A second important reason was the elimination of most of the mature male population at the end of the World War I. Many poor families without man were forced to have their children work in factories in order not to be hungry. Besides, that children were suitable for certain types of work increased the demand for child labour. (p.21)

Some keywords: child labour, reasons of child labour, national regulation, poverty

 

Tezgider, G.(1979); “The State Of Children In The Professional Life”, Çalışma Dergisi, Magazine January-April, p. 57-66


Tezgider, G.(1979); “The State Of Children In The Professional Life”, Çalışma Dergisi, Magazine January-April, p. 57-66.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

In the article the differences in income distribution and the places where children work are discussed. The constitutional side of child labour is explained and the ruthless exploitation of children in labour markets and the destruction of physical, menthal and ethical development of children is emphasised. Also the working children are far away from school, social security and social protection. And it is also discussed if the student status given to apprentices helps the exploitation or not. Also the trade union membership and activities of apprentices are restricted.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Everday the need for determining the minimum age for working, the cutting of work hours and strengthening the law sanctions is discussed. But even these insufficient laws are not applied in practice. We can say that the laws which are violated the most are the ones concerning the protection against child labour. The children are forced to work for more than 8 hours and their health examinations are never done. Even if the sanctions of laws are ineffect there is not much to do as the employer has to pay 1500 liras if violated the laws. Child health is that cheap. (p.62)

Some Key Words:

minimum age, apprenticeship, child development, reasons of child labour, child health, trade unions, social security, national regulation

 

 

Çolak, Ö.F.(1999); “Child Labour and Education”, İşveren Magazine, Cilt 37, Issue No. 7, April, Ankara


Çolak, Ö.F.(1999); “Child Labour and Education”, İşveren Magazine, Cilt 37, Issue No. 7, April, Ankara.

Number of Works Cited: 4

Scope:

The compulsory and non-compulsory reasons why children work are listed and also the state of child labour in the country is evaluated under the guidance of DIE’s(National Statistical Institute) Child Labour Survey. It was underlined that the way to keep children out of work depends on the amount of money spend on education from the budget.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Taking into account that %65 of people employed between the ages 12-24 have primary school, 11% have secondary school and %16 percent have lycee diplomas, the 8 year compulsory education system should be implemented more effectively. Enhancement of the production system where it is difficult to create a job for the low human capital worker, will fasten the positive transformation. (p.13)

Some Key Words:

working children, apprentice training, reasons of child labour, child labour survey