An Integrated Programme for The Elimination of Worst Forms of Child Labour in Furniture Sector in Three Selected Provinces: 2004-2006


Title of the Study: An Integrated Programme for The Elimination of Worst Forms of Child Labour in Furniture Sector in Three Selected Provinces: 2004-2006

Type of the Study: Research – Evaluation Report (The work has been conducted within the scope of the ILO-IPEC Programme.)

Author of the Study: Ministry of Labor and Social Security Department of Labor Inspection Commission

 

Presentation,,

Year/Place of Publication: 2005, Ankara

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 100

Purpose: Determination of bad working conditions of child workers, their working reasons, social and cultural situations in Ankara, İzmir ve Bursa in the furniture sector, and proposal of possible and plausible actions to immediately eliminate their bad working conditions

 

Content: Introduction section explains wood works as a sector. Then selection of study areas, research method, sampling, findings and demographical properties of working children are discussed. Demographical properties of families and employers are listed, and working conditions are probed into in detail. The study is ended with outcomes and proposals.

Method: Field studies are made in 364 workplaces in Ankara, 210 workplaces in İzmir and 126 workplaces in Bursa. Workplaces are randomly chosen from the address list of each city. Because the address lists prepared for three cities contain no information about the firms, mono-stage layered sampling has been used instead of multi-staged.

Excerpt: In consideration of working conditions and environments faced by children at workplaces, all of the children under the age of 15 have to be taken away from working life, and children aged between 15-18 must be taken away from heavy works such as wood works negatively affecting their physical and mental development. P.66

Some keywords: apprenticeship, furniture production sector, poverty

 

Izmir Project Report for Orienting Working Children to Education


Title of the Study: Izmir Project Report for Orienting Working Children to Education

Type of the Study: Research – Evaluation Report (The work has been conducted within the scope of the ILO-IPEC Programme.)

Author of the Study: Ministry of Labor and Social Security Department of Labor Inspection Directorate

 

Presentation,,

Year/Place of Publication: 2005, Ankara

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 215

Purpose: This project aims to increase the cooperation between agencies, orienting children to education, elimination of worst forms of child labor in chosen sectors, improvement of working conditions and environments of workplaces, reducing family poverty and preventing children from entering the working life and increasing the public sensitivity.

 

Content: First part makes a determination as to the situation of children working in the world and in Turkey. Part two describes the ground, purposes and cooperation of the project. Part three presents the data obtained in the project aimed at orienting children working in İzmir to education. Part four discuss the activities realized within the frame of the project.

Method: This study covered 690 working children at and under the age of 18 working in İzmir in automotive sector in industrial zones no 1-6, Işıkkent shoemakers industrial zone and apparel textile zone.

Excerpt: Increasing public sensitivity, actions taken and results achieved must be shared with the public. Particularly the achievements and developments and positive change in children will attract more attention from the public and persons and organizations wishing to contribute these efforts will take action. p.193

Some keywords: apprenticeship, ILO-IPEC, public sensitivity, poverty

 

 

 

 

Şişman, Y.(2003); ‘‘Child and Youth Labour in Turkey with Regards Social Policies’’, Kamu İş: İş Hukuku ve İktisat Magazine, C. VII, Issue No.2


Şişman, Y.(2003); ‘‘Child and Youth Labour in Turkey with Regards Social Policies’’, Kamu İş: İş Hukuku ve İktisat Magazine, C. VII, Issue No.2.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

Our purpose in this study is not to determine the dimension and attributes of the problem but at the same time to make even a small contribution to the solution of the problem by revealing the targets. Forms, means and limited nature of policies aimed at protecting child and youth labour. This study basically discusses child and youth labour in the urban area. Because there are evidences proving that there is visible increase in child and youth labour particularly in the urban area in last 20-30 years. In addition, children and youth working in the urban areas are most probably more unjustly treated than those working in the rural parts; therefore they deserved the special interest of academicians with regards policy production. However, most of what has been said in this article is fully valid for the agricultural sector as well.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Low economical development level in our country and more importantly unfair distribution of income results in the issue of poverty. Besides a population increase of 18,3%, which may be considered quick, increases the spare of children in the overall population. However, because social services are not increased in parallel with the increase in the number of children and youth on grounds of insufficient budget, participations in the work force in early ages are inevitable. Continuation of migration from rural parts to urban parts and inability to develop employment opportunities in cities, and even the shrinkage in employment due to crises in recent years and unemployment raises urban poverty to the top of our country’s social issues and it is mostly the children who take over this responsibility.

Some Keywords:

child labour, young labour force, city problems, children working in rural areas, social politics, socio-economic level, poverty

 

 

Subaşı, M., Kubilay, G.(2003); ‘‘Properties of Families and Dwellings of Children Living/Working in the Streets’’, Hemşirelikte Araştırma Geliştirme Magazine, 5:2, Ankara, December


Subaşı, M., Kubilay, G.(2003); ‘‘Properties of Families and Dwellings of Children Living/Working in the Streets’’, Hemşirelikte Araştırma Geliştirme Magazine, 5:2, Ankara, December.

Number of Works Cited: 35

Scope:

The study has been made to determine the properties of families and dwellings of children living/working in the streets. This is a descriptive study. Data is gathered using the questionnaire created by the researcher by face to face talks with the families included in the sample group between July-November 2000. The study universe comprises 280 children working in the streets registered with Ulus Children and Youth Center operating under the Social Services and Child Protection Agency and the families of 20 children living in the streets registered Ankara Governorship Children Education and Treatment Center aged between 7 and 14. The sample group is the 30 families of 49 children accessed between July–November. Obtained data is evaluated with regards numbers and percentiles.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Situations like fast population increase in major cities, unplanned urbanization, migration, poverty, increasing inflation, unemployment, accommodation in poor conditions, family violence, disruption of family integrity and loss of social support of family have negative effects on the family and all family individuals. In addition to these factors, situations such as alcohol and substance addiction in the family, father leaving the house, parents’ marriage to other persons, absence of money-bringing person, seeking of adventure, physical exploitation, sexual harassment and rape, low educational level, insufficient educational facilities, and traditional attitudes of the society are affecting mostly the children among all family members. These factors cause the children to get away from the family environment and lead to the street, a setting increasing the potential to commit crimes.

Some Keywords:

family, migration, residence properties, substance addiction, children working on the streets, children living on the streets, poverty

 

 

Gelegen, D.(2001); ‘‘Child Labor’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, April, 6:42-46


Gelegen, D.(2001); ‘‘Child Labor’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, April, 6:42-46.

Number of Works Cited: 1

Scope:

Leon Warshaw’s article (Precarious Employment and Child Labour, Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety. International Labour Organization. Geneva, 1998.) has been translated to our language. The concepts of child labour and child slavery are explained. Then, the subject has been deepened based on ILO data. The following section discussed in which jobs the children worked and the potential damages of such jobs. The final section focused on economic and social results of child labour.

An Excerpt from the Article:

There are many forms of employment where the workers are subjected to impoverishment, exploitation and maltreatment; and where their health and safety are in great risks. Despite efforts by regulations, international conventions and treaties and solutions offered by them, it seems such working conditions will continue as long as human poverty, repression, misaccommodation and nutritional conditions remain the same. Workers also do not have the chance to benefit from information, education, skill gaining, protective and treating health services required to get rid of the bad situation they are in. (p.6)

Some Keywords:

working conditions, apprentices, child workers, child slavery, child exploitation, social security, poverty

 

Erkin, C., Rende S.(2005); ‘‘Child Labor: Use As Much As You Want, It is Cheap Here’’, Birikim Magazine, Issue No.192, Istanbul, April


Erkin, C., Rende S.(2005); ‘‘Child Labor: Use As Much As You Want, It is Cheap Here’’, Birikim Magazine, Issue No.192, Istanbul, April.

Number of Works Cited: 33

Scope:

The study first discusses what child labour is and the situation of child labour in the world. Then, the basic causes of child labour are given. In addition, probing has been made into whether or not poverty is the only factor and then examples are given to prove that prohibitions are not sufficient to end child labour. The following section gives information about domestic production and female child labour.

An Excerpt from the Article:

So, why do the employers prefer children where adults are unable to find employment? An explanation to the effect that ‘‘small and skillful’’ fingers are more productive in weaving carpets, and collecting jasmines also set forth for female labour has been put behind upon understanding that the productiveness of children and adults were not different than each other in this field. More reasonable cause is that children are working with lower wages. Responses received when the question is directed to the employers emphasize other reasons of their preference of child labour. (p.41)

Some Keywords:

child labour, girl child labour, poverty

 

Erder, S.(2005); ‘‘Working Children: Apprentice or Worker?’’Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.38-44


Erder, S.(2005); ‘‘Working Children: Apprentice or Worker?’’Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.38-44.

Number of Works Cited: 11

Scope:

The article discusses some trends observed in a field study conducted some 10 years ago about working children. In this study, which is relation-seeking rather than representative, some observations are made about the positions of children working in Istanbul. This field study is based on interviews made in 1993 with children and their employers in Istanbul Umraniye small-sized industrial workplaces; and interviews and observations made with the ‘‘Apprentice Training Center’’ in this region and some workplaces that have launched apprentice training initiatives at their workplaces.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The first point that attracted our attention during the study about working children was that they were not homogenous with regard to their poverty degree, family relationships, origins, working conditions and working motives of children. Likewise, the study conducted by Altıntaş in Ankara also emphasizes that children working on streets are not homogenous groups. Again, studies reveal that the experiences of female children in working life have clear differences compared to those of male children. (p.38)

Some Keywords:

family, working children, working conditions, apprentices, apprentice training, reasons of child labour, girl child labour, poverty

 

 

Dikbayır, G.; Dayıoğlu, M.; Bakır, A.; Ataöv, A.(2001); ‘Effects of Income on Child Employment’, (In: Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara, p.161-181


Dikbayır, G.; Dayıoğlu, M.; Bakır, A.; Ataöv, A.(2001); ‘Effects of Income on Child Employment’, (In: Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara, p.161-181.

Number of Works Cited: 14

Scope:

The study covers the children aged between 6 and 17. Based on child labour statistics of 1999, this study discusses whether or not there is correlation between poverty and working of children in income generating jobs in Turkey. As in many other studies, poverty is only covered with its income aspect. The study uses the unpublished data of child labour survey realized by questionnaire forms related to children between the ages 5 and 17 conducted by DIE in 1999 and inserted into the October household labour survey. According to this study, there are 16.088.108 children between the ages 6 and 17 in Turkey. About 10% of these children are working in income generating jobs.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Results obtained from this study based on the 1999 Child Labour Survey demonstrate that 10,17% of children between the ages 6 and 17 throughout Turkey are working. Separately considering rural and urban settlements, it is seen that 6% of children are working in urban areas while a very high percentage like 17% of children are working in rural areas. (p.178)

Some Keywords:

child workers, income level, household labour force survey, children working in rural areas, poverty

 

 

 

Determining Nature of Poverty on Child Labour


Title of the Study: Determining Nature of Poverty on Child Labour

Type of the Study: Master Project without Dissertation

Author of the Study: Metin Turan

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: İzmir, 2006 (Dokuz Eylül University Institute of Social Sciences Department of Labour Economics and Industrial Relations)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 134

Purpose: Study of poverty and determining nature of poverty on child labour.

Content: Part one discusses poverty, child employment and relevant concepts. Part two discusses the grounds in which child employment has emerged, what its forms are and what results it has created. Part three discusses the dimensions of poverty in the world and in Turkey revealing the dimensions of poverty and child employment.

Method: Literature scanning method is used.

Excerpt: In general sense, the basic reason of child employment is poverty for the family. Generally, it is one of the ways of basic requirements of household. Children with families deprived of economic and social security are obliged to work to contribute to their families. In some cases, it is only the child who brings income to the family. (p.111)

Some keywords: child labour, reasons of child labour, social security, poverty

 

Children Working in The Streets, Their Families and Children’s Rights: A Study in Ankara


Title of the Study: Children Working in The Streets, Their Families and Children’s Rights: A Study in Ankara

Type of the Study: Master Thesis

Author of the Study: Tülin Kuşgözoğlu

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: Ankara, 2005 (TODAİE Public Administration Programme)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 277

Purpose: Family dimension in the child-family-society triangle that lies in the basis of the problem is studied by way of data gathering from children working in the streets and their families. The study tries to determine the profiles of families of children working in the streets and some data about their opinions on children’s rights, information and application levels are accessed.

Content: Part one discusses definitions and concepts about children working in the streets. Part two looks at the problem of children working in the streets from the dimension of children’s rights. Part three includes a study made in Ankara.

Method: Interviews are made with 55 families living in Ankara whose children are working on the streets. Data is gathered by individual interviews thru forms prepared by researcher. Interviewed families in the study are chosen by random sampling from among families found to have their children working on the streets during previously made studies at Ulus and Fatma Üçer Child and Youth Centers and Altındağ Community Center operating under SHÇEK Ankara Social Services Directorate.

Excerpt: Children working in the streets phenomenon seen as a form of poverty and child labour in the most general sense covers almost all of the children’s rights violations. Particularly during recent years, addressed in priority by international organizations, this case is almost passing in front of child labour. (s.147)

Some keywords: family, working conditions, child rights, children working on the streets, poverty

 

 

 

Child Labour in Turkey


Title of the Study: Child Labour in Turkey

Type of the Study: Master Thesis

Author of the Study: Cengiz Çınar

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: Ankara, 2003 (TODAİE Public Administration Programme)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 80

Purpose: To discuss the historical development in Turkey and the use of child labour in today’s world.

Content: Part one discusses the concepts about the subject. Part two discusses the historical development of the problem of working children and national and international regulations about working children. Part three discusses the forms of utilization of child labour in our country, by studying existing researches and studies, and efforts are made to explain the situation of working children.

Method: Literature scanning method is used.

Excerpt: The reason child labour is used in such high rates in this period was low payment by employers compared to adults and increasing their profits. A second important reason was the elimination of most of the mature male population at the end of the World War I. Many poor families without man were forced to have their children work in factories in order not to be hungry. Besides, that children were suitable for certain types of work increased the demand for child labour. (p.21)

Some keywords: child labour, reasons of child labour, national regulation, poverty

 

Determination of Risk Factors for Child Labor; Comparison of Health Status of Children Workers and Students Attending School

Title of the Study:     Determination of Risk Factors for Child Labor; Comparison of Health Status of Children Workers and Students Attending School

Type of the Study:         Medical Specialization Thesis

Author of the Study:        Dr. Binali Çıtak

Presentation,
Year/Place of Publication:    Denizli, 2006 (Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine
Public Health Department)

Language of the Study:     Turkish

Number of Pages:        102

Purpose:    To evaluate the affect of family’s social status and some socio-demographic properties on children workers and to compare the health status of the children working and the children going to school.

Content:    In the first chapter an introduction takes place. In the second chapter the concepts of child and child workers have explained and legitimate framework has brought up. In the third chapter, the method of the search has been described and in the fourth chapter findings have set forth.

Method:    In the study, that effective factors on children workers has been searched, fact control method has been used. While child workers, aged 18 and under 18, taking education in the Vali Necati Bilican Occupational Education Center have considered as fact group, the students, aged 18 and under 18, taking education in the intensive high schools have considered as control group.

Excerpt:        The relationship between family’s social status and child workers constitutes one of the main findings of this study. In one study carried out, unemployment of father, increases working of children 3 times has reported.

Some keywords:    family, apprentice training, child labour, child health, social status, socio-demographic level, poverty

Mangır M.; Aral N.; Köksal A.(1993); ”Reasons For Working Of The Children Attending Apprentice Training Centers”, Kültür Gençlik Magazine, January-April, Ministry of Culture, Ankara, p. 43-45


Mangır M.; Aral N.; Köksal A.(1993); ”Reasons For Working Of The Children Attending Apprentice Training Centers”, Kültür Gençlik Magazine, January-April, Ministry of Culture, Ankara, p. 43-45.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

Children that attend Siteler Apprentice Training Center from metal, upholstery and woodwork sectors are selected using simple random sampling model in pairs of 60. It is found that although economic contribution to family, and lack of education opportunities are factors effecting child labour the main reason is unemployment and poverty related to this. The necessitiy of the active participation of the society for children’s escape from the negative working conditions and for becoming ones that can safely look at the future and who are fully emotionally, methally and socially developed are emphasised.

An Excerpt from the Article:

But unemployment, and poverty caused as a conseqounce of this fact lies in the base of fundamental reasons. Therefore, studies should be done to overcome unemployment and preventive measures should be taken. (p.45)

Some Key Words:

working children, working conditions, apprentice training, apprenticeship, unemployment, poverty

 

 

Fişek, A.G.(1998); “The Development Of Employer Contribution to The Child Labour Problem”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, September-October, Issue No. 40, p. 2-6


Fişek, A.G.(1998); “The Development Of Employer Contribution to The Child Labour Problem”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, September-October, Issue No. 40, p. 2-6.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The child labour problem is discussed in terms of human rights; and the fact that the early entry of children in work life and withdrawing from educational life will leave the society with unskilled labour in the future is mentioned. The solution to child labour problem should be considered in short term and long term approaches; The question of what is the level of tolerance to child labour is answered by the ILO’s approach. Working children and adults are compared according to living and working conditions in the present and absent list; The importance of the legal regulations are emphasised although these should be internalised by both the workers and the employers. The success of Fişek Institute’s ‘‘soft negotiaiton’’ is touched. The fact that the society as a whole is responsible from child labour and the society owes a fidelity debt to these children is emphasised. The responsibilities of the employers to working children and the 2 projects carried out with employers and Fişek Institute (common occupational safety and health unit, working children health scanning) is also qouted. The article is ended with target, method and roadmap suggestions.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Poverty, lack of social security and education, future concerns about getting employed drives children in to work while the employers hire them because of need of cheap labour, traditional facts and desire to form a good team for production. As a consequence the society is responsible for the child labour problem. The contribution to the efforts of keeping a way children from the working life can not only be expected from the employers; also the the other classes of the society should give a hand as well. (p.5)

Some Key Words:

working children, smiling speech, ILO, occupational safety and health, social responsibility, debt of society, poverty

 

Düzgünoğu, R.A.(1997); “Child Labour Exploitation In The Third World’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine , March-June, p. 31-32, sayfa 10-11

Düzgünoğu, R.A.(1997); “Child Labour Exploitation In The Third World’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine , March-June, p. 31-32, sayfa 10-11.

 

Number of Works Cited: 5

 

Scope:

Child labour in the world and in our country is discussed. The subchapters of the article is as follows; child labour in agriculture, child labour in industry and mines, child prostitutes, employment types of child labour, barriers to the elimination of child labour: globalisation and poverty.

 

An Excerpt from the Article:

Globalisation in manifacturing means that some parts of production processes can be shifted to countries where labour costs are low. As the comparative advantage theory in international trade comes back into the literature successfully, high amounts of child labour gives an important advantage to the least developed economies which compete with their low labour costs. So, this creates an environment where child labour is fed by globalisation. Therefore, elimination of child labour in this situation is just a wishful thought which does not coincide with the realities. (p.11)

 

Some Key Words:

child labour, prostitution, globalisation, child labour in agriculture, poverty