Special Risk Factors on Children at Work

Title of the Study: Special Risk Factors on Children at Work

 

Type of the Study: Report-Research

 

Authors of the Study: Gürhan Fişek

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: 1995, Ankara

 

Language of the Study: English

 

Number of Pages: 46

 

Purpose: To explain urban and rural empolyment of children, to outline occupational safety and health conditions of children in manifacturing industry, construction and agriculture.

 

Content: Our research effort is composed of three main parts, the first of which comprises a retrospective evaluation of the situation. Basic data is derived from retrospective questions to present-day adult workers, in relation to the working conditions, etc., of their respective childhoods. The second group of enquiries, cross-section in nature, has been directed towards those workers who are, simultaneously, children and workers. Finally, the last group of enquiries takes the form of three seperate research efforts into working conditions in the threemajor sectors of the study, i.e., agriculture, construction, and the manifacturing industry.

 

Method: Retrospective questions approach is adopted.

 

 

Excerpt: Finally, efforts should be made to mobilise all means and opportunities to better existing conditions of workplace health and safety, and small-scale enterprises should be motivated (if necesssary, subsidised) to join in. (p.34)

 

Some Keywords: child workers, occupational safety and health, small and medium enterprises

 

 

 

ILO-IPEC Project Report


Title of the Study: ILO-IPEC Project Report

Type of the Study: Project Report (Project implemented with the supervision of ILO-IPEC)

Authors of the Study: Ministry of Labour and Social Security Work Inspection Board

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: March 1996, Ankara

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 101

Purpose: To gather the works done by Work Inspection Board.

Content: This work is done under Ministry of Labour and Social Security Work Inspection Board’s 8 groups in 8 sectors(metal works, polyester workshops, confection sector, shoe manifacturing, leather, auto repair, auto paint). Inspectors on duty at Malatya work inspection group are also added to the 1994 project. All of the sectors are evaluated under these headlines: Under determining previliged risks; risk chosen, targeted group, the appropraite environment to solve risk, education and information matterials to be used, the problems faced during the implementation of projects are discussed. Under field surveys; training efforts and production of education and communication matterials part, numbers about workplaces, work done concerning education and communication matterials, field surveys, education, evaluation of the work done, state of the previliged risk, reasons of malpractice, new suggestions thought to be useful in future are discussed.

Method: Education and communication techniques are thought to the 39 attendants that took part earlier in 1994 practices so that they have the right qualifiacations to complete the work where these consist of being at the right place at the right time using the right matterials and method. In this study, workplace inspection is taken away from its classical approach. The new method has three stages: The first one is to listen and observe; second is to evaluate and comprehend; third stage is to create policies to change the behaviours toward child labour. Third stage is done under the framework of ILO-IPEC ‘‘Communication and Education Methods’’ project.

 

Excerpt: Employers admit the use of personal protection equipment, the need of appropriate ventilation systems, benefits of high quality inputs, essentiality of seperating the painting area and the harms of high working hours but when it comes to cost evaluation their attitudes change. For these reasons for them to change their attitudes towards the concepts listed above they need time and need proper and frequent education. (p.22)

Some Keywords: apprentice training, child labour, occupational safety and health, risk

 

Öke, M.K.(1979); “A Sociaological Survey on the Working Conditions of the Apprentices in Ankara’’, Çalışma Magazine, January- April, p. 37-56


Öke, M.K.(1979); “A Sociaological Survey on the Working Conditions of the Apprentices in Ankara’’, Çalışma Magazine, January- April, p. 37-56.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The article is based on the survey conducted in the Ankara’s Siteler and Sanayi Çarşısı(Industrial Bazaar) area where 40 apprentices in 15 different work places are questioned and interview with Çırak-Der Ankara Branch Representative. There are 41 questions on the poll and the questions were about their ages, former places they worked, their experiences, their social security status, occupational safety and health attitudes, their involvement in the actual production process, their wages, distance between the Ministry of Labour’s occupational inspectors and them, their educational backgrounds, reason to start work, number of their brothers and sisters, amount of hours they can rest a day, and etc. Also legal issues are discussed.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The results of the survey shows that they are literally involved in the production process and whatever the coercion is they are not students and they can’t be either. They are non-qualified young workers and they have no difference from the elder labour force apart from their ages. Therefore, these young workers should find a place in the legal framework so that they can benefit from the protective side of the labour laws. The industrial apprenticeship concept can not be admitted in Turkey as this means the legal exploitation of the young workers using the legal framework. This whole concept should be eliminated from the literature cause whatever the legal procedures are the system can not be corrected. (p.44-45)

Some Key Words:

working conditions, apprenticeship, occupational accident, occupational safety and health, sociology

 

Fişek, A.G.; “Medico-Social Problems Of The Child Workers Research”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, May, Issue No. 8, p. 27-32


Fişek, A.G.; “Medico-Social Problems Of The Child Workers Research”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, May, Issue No. 8, p. 27-32.

Number of Works Cited: 29

Scope:

The article which takes the situation where there is no alternative as the main reason of full time child labour in the developing countries also gives findings on working children’s profiles and health conditions of child workers employed in the small scale enterprises. In the result part, social policies towards child workers should be revised and new models should be applied. With the inclusion of children, a medico-social organisation which surrounds apprentice education centers and work places are recommended to take place.

 

An Excerpt from the Article:

When children’s expectations about the future is considered, results worth thinking of and different in terms of educational status, gender and backgrounds are revealed. Girls with the effect of traditional structure are planning to withdraw from the working life. The girls who are under the effect of this thought consists of %71,8 of the girls that are the sample population of this survey. This really effects their future lives very closely. Because they do not want to become a skilled worker. But observations shows that they are forced to return back to the active labour markets because of economic difficulties without any skills. (p.29)

Some Key Words:

diet, apprentice training, child workers, child health, occupational safety and health, medico-social problems

 

 

Fişek, A.G.(1999); “Working Children and Small And Medium Enterprises’’, İşveren Magazine, Volume: 37, Issue No. 7, April, Ankara


Fişek, A.G.(1999); “Working Children and Small And Medium Enterprises’’, İşveren Magazine, Volume: 37, Issue No. 7, April, Ankara.

Number of Works Cited: 5

Scope:

The importance of small enterprises are discovered in the economy again but also the low level of occupational safety and health conditions should be considered as well. Also it is emphasised that occupational diseases and accidents are the results of mal practice of preventive measures and as the number of employees decreases in a work place the conditions worsen(which is even worse in places where there is child labour). In the international arena the debate of child labour is focused on ‘‘intolerable child labour’’ and within this framework from forced labour to working in hard conditions drows the lines.

An Excerpt from the Article:

182 children-adolescents are withdrawn from labour force because of death related to occupational diseases or lost labour capability(disabled). This consists of %3,1 of the group left their work for these reasons. The ones which lost a couple workdays because of injuries or illnesses make up %2,7. (p.19)

Some Key Words:

working conditions, child labour, occupational accident, occupational safety and health, small and medium enterprises, occupational disease

 

Fişek, A.G.(1998); “The Development Of Employer Contribution to The Child Labour Problem”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, September-October, Issue No. 40, p. 2-6


Fişek, A.G.(1998); “The Development Of Employer Contribution to The Child Labour Problem”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, September-October, Issue No. 40, p. 2-6.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The child labour problem is discussed in terms of human rights; and the fact that the early entry of children in work life and withdrawing from educational life will leave the society with unskilled labour in the future is mentioned. The solution to child labour problem should be considered in short term and long term approaches; The question of what is the level of tolerance to child labour is answered by the ILO’s approach. Working children and adults are compared according to living and working conditions in the present and absent list; The importance of the legal regulations are emphasised although these should be internalised by both the workers and the employers. The success of Fişek Institute’s ‘‘soft negotiaiton’’ is touched. The fact that the society as a whole is responsible from child labour and the society owes a fidelity debt to these children is emphasised. The responsibilities of the employers to working children and the 2 projects carried out with employers and Fişek Institute (common occupational safety and health unit, working children health scanning) is also qouted. The article is ended with target, method and roadmap suggestions.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Poverty, lack of social security and education, future concerns about getting employed drives children in to work while the employers hire them because of need of cheap labour, traditional facts and desire to form a good team for production. As a consequence the society is responsible for the child labour problem. The contribution to the efforts of keeping a way children from the working life can not only be expected from the employers; also the the other classes of the society should give a hand as well. (p.5)

Some Key Words:

working children, smiling speech, ILO, occupational safety and health, social responsibility, debt of society, poverty

 

Fişek, A.G.; Taşyürek, M.(1995); “A Research Capturing Working Conditions In Small Enterprises Employing Children”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, September-October, Issue No. 22, p. 15-23


Fişek, A.G.; Taşyürek, M.(1995); “A Research Capturing Working Conditions In Small Enterprises Employing Children”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, September-October, Issue No. 22, p. 15-23

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

Working conditions in 126 enterprises that are participating in Health Service to Small Enterprises Employing Children project which is carried out by Fişek Institute in Ankara-Ostim Industrial Site is evaluated, and these conditions are compared(independent variables; if anyone employed under the age of 15, enterprise size, types of work) using several variables. When evaluating working conditions, list which was produced by Eurpean Council Occupational Safety And Health Comission is used and a scale that has 10 division is developed and it is presented in the appendix. This scale(Enterprise Occupational Safety And Health Indicator) is formed of points from 1 to 5 representing bad and good and each division is given points and then the average of the 10 division is taken.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The study reveals that the greatest difference in between enterprises employing and not employing children is seen in this 5 sub-indicators: 1-Employer attitude 2-Measures taken against risk of fire 3-Ergonomic conditions 4-Working conditions 5-Machines and workplace equipments. (p.16)

Some Key Words:

working children, working conditions, occupational safety and health

Aygün, R.; Akdur, R.(1978); “Occupational Conditions of The Small Scale Enterprises in Siteler Ankara and Determination of Some Properties of the Workers”, First National Occupational Health Congress, 19-21 October, İstanbul, p. 563-580


Aygün, R.; Akdur, R.(1978); “Occupational Conditions of The Small Scale Enterprises in Siteler Ankara and Determination of Some Properties of the Workers”, First National Occupational Health Congress, 19-21 October, İstanbul, p. 563-580.

Number of Works Cited: 2

Scope:

This survey is made in 100 workplaces to contribute to the studies that are conducted by Ankara Physician’s Chamber about the determination of occupational health conditions and social problems of the workers. It is observed that minimising costs in labour intensive works supports child labour and cheap labour force and also it shows that labour is exploited where occupational health and safety standards are low and where proper official inspections are not made properly. This research is an important guide to the forthcoming studies.

An Excerpt from the Article:

835 (%62,5)workers which attend the survey are under 18 years of age. This data proofs our observations. Big enterprises making the same goods have %9 of workers under the age of 18. (p.564)

Some Key Words:

apprentice training, child development, child workers, occupational safety and health, cheap labour