The Medico-Social Problems of Working Children


Title of the Study: The Medico-Social Problems of Working Children

 

Type of the Study: Research –Evaluation Report ( The research is supported by Meawards)

Authors of the Study: Dr. Gürhan Fişek

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: February 1986, Ankara

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 146

Purpose: The aim of the study is to find out and to reveal the medico-social problems and states of the working children(according to the Turkish Labour Code, ones who are under the age of 18) and compare them with the ones attending schools.

Content: In the introduction part child labour in the worls and in Turkey is explained from a historical perspective. Also the national regulations concerning the subject is touched. In the second chapter methodology is discussed. In the third chapter findings are given in detail and briefly outlined. The findings are on; personal properties of the experimentals, working life of the children, nurtition and health status, friendship and vacational activities, their future expectations. Fourth chapter is the discussion one and the fifth chapter is the conclusion one.

Method: The research is based on field survey where indexation and interview methods are used. Experimentals are chosen from 2 different groups within this research that is conducted to reveal the medico-social problems of the working children. The first group consists of children that are fully seperated from the educational life. The second group is chosen as the control group where children are ateending schools. Data of personal properties of the experimentals, working life of the children, ocuupational safety and health knowledge, working conditions, nurtition and health status, friendship and vacational activities, their future expectations are obtained. Working children survey is formed and implemented to be able to make comparisons. Also comparisons are made using different indexation techniques.

Excerpt: In both these educational chains, medico-social organisations should be structured and even if there is one, its capacity should be built. These organisatons should have a health approach where their occupational and living environment with their leisure time are seen as a whole. Therefore, there will be organisations that will take the solution of medico-social problems of the working children as their main priority.

Some keywords: Working children, medico-social problems, apprenticeship training centers, national regulation

 

 

The Medico-Social Problems of Working Children


Title of the Study: The Medico-Social Problems of Working Children

 

Type of the Study: Research –Evaluation Report ( The research is supported by Meawards)

Authors of the Study: Dr. Gürhan Fişek

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: February 1986, Ankara

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 146

Purpose: The aim of the study is to find out and to reveal the medico-social problems and states of the working children(according to the Turkish Labour Code, ones who are under the age of 18) and compare them with the ones attending schools.

Content: In the introduction part child labour in the worls and in Turkey is explained from a historical perspective. Also the national regulations concerning the subject is touched. In the second chapter methodology is discussed. In the third chapter findings are given in detail and briefly outlined. The findings are on; personal properties of the experimentals, working life of the children, nurtition and health status, friendship and vacational activities, their future expectations. Fourth chapter is the discussion one and the fifth chapter is the conclusion one.

Method: The research is based on field survey where indexation and interview methods are used. Experimentals are chosen from 2 different groups within this research that is conducted to reveal the medico-social problems of the working children. The first group consists of children that are fully seperated from the educational life. The second group is chosen as the control group where children are ateending schools. Data of personal properties of the experimentals, working life of the children, ocuupational safety and health knowledge, working conditions, nurtition and health status, friendship and vacational activities, their future expectations are obtained. Working children survey is formed and implemented to be able to make comparisons. Also comparisons are made using different indexation techniques.

Excerpt: In both these educational chains, medico-social organisations should be structured and even if there is one, its capacity should be built. These organisatons should have a health approach where their occupational and living environment with their leisure time are seen as a whole. Therefore, there will be organisations that will take the solution of medico-social problems of the working children as their main priority.

Some keywords: working children, medico-social problems, national regulation

 

For Handkerchief, Savory Rolls, Painting, Garbage,…….: Working in the Streets of Ankara


Title of the Study: For Handkerchief, Savory Rolls, Painting, Garbage,…….: Working in the Streets of Ankara

Type of the Study: Book

Author of the Study: Altıntaş, Betül

 

Presentation,,

Year/Place of Publication: İstanbul, 2003 (İstanbul University Institute of Social Sciences Department of Business Economy and Industrial Relations)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 256

Purpose: Explain the issue of children working in the streets and child labour based on observations made in Ankara.

Content: The book contains evaluations about the situation of children working in the streets throughout the world, relevant forms of approach, and legal and organizations regulations in Turkey.

Method: Literature scanning and field study methods were used.

Excerpt: People don’t understand us. Some think we are beggars. Them contemplate us, swear at us, we can’t say anything, and we go leave there.” These words belong to Ayşe aged 11 and Adnan aged 14. Ayşe and Adnan are not thieves and beggars. Ayşe sells adhesive bandage in the streets of Ankara, and Adnan paints shoes. They contribute to family income this way. Monies brought by “Ayşe”s and “Adnan”s are even forming the main income item of many families.

Some keywords: child labour, child rights, children working on the streets, national regulation

 

 

 

Lordoğlu, K.(2002); ‘‘No Time to Play, But Streets are Ours’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine Issue No.60, January-February


Lordoğlu, K.(2002); ‘‘No Time to Play, But Streets are Ours’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine Issue No.60, January-February.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The first section described the working areas of children using the data from DIE’s Child Labour Survey of 1994 and 1999. Then, explanations are made about why the children are working, and the reasons they get into the working life in small ages with examples from different geographical regions. Outcomes of children working and the approach of national regulations are probed into in the final section.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Only to list down some of the problems that are encountered by children who have no time to play and are after work will render this article impossible to read. Both in Turkey and in all other countries where children are employed, different programs exist proposed against problems in child labour. International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labor(IPEC) of International Labor Organization is one of them. The Immediate Action Plan and Convention No. 182 on Eliminating Worst Forms of Child Labour and No.138 on the Minimum Age signed by Turkey aimed to fully prohibit child labor, which is not in harmony with the existing conditions. (p.11)

Some Keywords:

child labour, ILO-IPEC, national regulation, international regulation

 

Karabulut, Ö.(2005); ‘‘Children Working in Economical Jobs’’, Tes-İş Magazine, June 2005, p.65-70


Karabulut, Ö.(2005); ‘‘Children Working in Economical Jobs’’, Tes-İş Magazine, June 2005, p.65-70.

Number of Works Cited: 13

Scope:

The subject of child labor in Turkey has been discussed in figures using the data obtained from DIE’s Child Labour Surveys in 1994 and 1999. Working conditions of working children are discussed also in consideration of national regulations and ILO conventions. The results section gathers the discussed topics and makes some proposals.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Reasons underlying the working of children, their problems and solution are multi-dimensional, and it is not possible to abstract them from the basic problems of Turkey and from policies aimed at solving these problems. More and more children are entering the working life every passing day as a result of the socio-economic policies in force, and the number of children living and working on the streets increases in big cities, Istanbul being the foremost. (p.68)

Some Keywords:

ILO, children working on the streets, children living on the streets, national regulation, international regulation

 

Bakırcı, K.(2004); ‘‘Child and Youth Labour in Turkey’’, Görüş Magazine, March, p.52-56


Bakırcı, K.(2004); ‘‘Child and Youth Labour in Turkey’’, Görüş Magazine, March, p.52-56.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The introduction section discusses the concept of child labour. And subsequent sections discuss the approach of International Labor Organization (ILO) to the subject and a summary is given in consideration of the current regulations in our country.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Child labour is illegal although it is considered illegal as mentioned above. This case is generally surrounded by the wall of silence and indifference. However, this wall started to crackle.

Some Keywords:

child labour, ILO, national regulation, international regulation

 

Alpar, B.M.(2002); ‘‘Regulations on Working Life Related to the ILO Convention No.182 Concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of Worst Forms of Child Labour’’, Kamu-İş: İş Hukuku ve İktisat Magazine, Volume:7, Issue No.1


Alpar, B.M.(2002); ‘‘Regulations on Working Life Related to the ILO Convention No.182 Concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of Worst Forms of Child Labour’’, Kamu-İş: İş Hukuku ve İktisat Magazine, Volume:7, Issue No.1.

Number of Works Cited: 7

Scope:

After a short introduction conceptually discussing child labour, focus is made to the international law aspects of the topic; ILO conventions, and other international conventions are discussed. Subsequent sections focus on the legal aspects of the topic in our country.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Considering the socio-economic conditions of countries, insufficient resources and lack of infrastructure makes us think that it is hard to eliminate child labour in the short term. Its realization depends on improvement of social and economic conditions in many countries. So, ILO-IPEC set its priority as the Prevention of “Worst Forms of Child Labor”. (p.19)

Some Keywords:

child labour, ILO, socio-economic level, national regulation, international regulation

 

Child Employment in Labour Code


Title of the Study: Child Employment in Labour Code

Type of the Study: Master Thesis

Author of the Study: Emine Berrin Turan

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: İstanbul, 2004 (Marmara University Institute of Social Sciences Department of Law)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 162

Purpose: Study of the legal dimension of child employment.

Content: Part one discusses the regulations forming the legal basis of child labour. Part two gives a description of child and child labour concept is explained and basic concepts on this subject are given by revealing the difference of this concept from apprentice and trainee.

Method: Literature scanning method is used.

Excerpt: Another difference between apprentice and child worker is that apprenticeship contract is for the time period until 19 years of age, thereafter the apprenticeship contract between the parties will terminate as a rule but as an exception the previous apprenticeship contract with an apprentice who has terminated the age of 18 before its contract has expired will survive the termination of contract. (p.95)

Some keywords: apprenticeship, child workers, national regulation

 

 

Child Employment


Title of the Study: Child Employment

Type of the Study: Phd. Thesis

Author of the Study: Zafer Kaplan

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: İstanbul, 2001 (İstanbul University Institute of Social Sciences Department of Labour Economics and Industrial Relations)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 196

Purpose: Examination of child labour in different dimensions and demonstration of concrete cases for shedding light on what has to be done for the elimination of child labour in the future.

Content: Part one makes a description of basic concepts and gives definitions. Part two addresses the dimension of children’s rights. Part three examines the phenomenon of child employment in the scale of Turkey. Part four gives the field study conducted in İstanbul Eminönü district Sultanahmet neighborhood.

Method: Literature scanning and field study methods are used. The survey has been made on 80 children selling thins on streets by interview method. Focus is made to qualitative determinations instead of quantitative determinations.

Excerpt: The value of child varies by societies being traditional or industrial societies. With the industrialization of children, economic value of children, labor codes limiting child labour, compulsory education and social security measures reduce the potential economic value of the child, and increase the cost of child. (p.21)

Some keywords: working children, child rights, industrialisation, social security, national regulation

Child Labour in Leather Sector in the World and Turkey Scale


Title of the Study: Child Labour in Leather Sector in the World and Turkey Scale

Type of the Study: Phd. Thesis

Author of the Study: Ahmet Kemerli

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: İstanbul, 2001 (İstanbul University Institute of Social Sciences Department of Labour Economics and Industrial Relations)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 167

Purpose: Discussion of child labour with regard to child development and analytical examination of factors determining labour. Examination of the current situation of child labour in the world by sectors on country basis

 

Content: The study has four parts. Titled, Child Development and Child Law, the first part focuses on the concept of child. Child labour and factors determining child labour are discussed in the second part. Third part titled Child Labour in the World gives an overview of child labour. Fourth part titled Child Labour in Turkish Leather Sector and Field Study focuses on the structural elements of child labour.

Method: Literature scanning and field survey methods are used. Excerpts are made from DIE surveys conducted in 1994 aimed at children.

Excerpt: Many children work and study at the same time. This is because school hours and number of school days in developing countries is very low. For example, within the frame of IPEC programme, in a study made in shoemaking sector in Brazil it has been found that most of the children attend school and work about 8 hours a day. (p.68)

Some keywords: child labour, child development, reasons of child labour, child labour survey, ILO-IPEC, national regulation

 

 

 

 

 

Child Labour in Turkey


Title of the Study: Child Labour in Turkey

Type of the Study: Master Thesis

Author of the Study: Cengiz Çınar

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: Ankara, 2003 (TODAİE Public Administration Programme)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 80

Purpose: To discuss the historical development in Turkey and the use of child labour in today’s world.

Content: Part one discusses the concepts about the subject. Part two discusses the historical development of the problem of working children and national and international regulations about working children. Part three discusses the forms of utilization of child labour in our country, by studying existing researches and studies, and efforts are made to explain the situation of working children.

Method: Literature scanning method is used.

Excerpt: The reason child labour is used in such high rates in this period was low payment by employers compared to adults and increasing their profits. A second important reason was the elimination of most of the mature male population at the end of the World War I. Many poor families without man were forced to have their children work in factories in order not to be hungry. Besides, that children were suitable for certain types of work increased the demand for child labour. (p.21)

Some keywords: child labour, reasons of child labour, national regulation, poverty

 

From Traditional Apprenticeship to Child Labour: A Field Survey


Title of the Study: From Traditional Apprenticeship to Child Labour: A Field Survey

 

Type of the Study: Report

Authors of the Study: Sema Erder – Kuvvet Lordoğlu

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: 1993, İstanbul

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 223

Purpose: To outline what can be done to children living in rural areas especially in poor forest villages that are within the category that ILO defined who work for more than 5 months a year apart from their family and their village and supply their labour to others to contribute to family income.

Content: In the first part, concepts like child labour, child labour in İstanbul, apprentice training and related centers are discussed. In the second part results of the employer survey is given. In the third part data obtained from apprentice survey is pointed out. In the fourth chapter working conditions of the apprentices, in the fifth chapter the way the apprentices look at themselves, in the sixth chapter girl apprentices, in the seventh chapter expectations, and in the eight chapter findings and result can be found.

Method: The research depends on the observations made and interviews done in Ümraniye Small Enterprise Industrial Site where employers are heavily using child labour like metal, machinary manifacturing and textile sectors.

Excerpt: Consequently, the existing apprentice system is regulating the relations between governmet, employers and apprentices. All three partners seem to be happy with this system. But, we have a lot of concerns about how this system can contribute to the enhancement of the skills of apprentices and will rise the incomes of these children. (p.183)

Some Keywords: apprentices, apprentice training, child labour, national regulation

 

 

Regulations on Working Children


Title of the Study: Regulations on Working Children

Type of the Study: Report

Authors of the Study: Dr. Samira Yener – İstiklal Alpar

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: January 1985, Ankara

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 28

Purpose: To end child labour in developing countries by activities aiming to stop the exploitation of children and by demolishing the reasons forcing children to work.

Content: The reasons of child labour is given within a specific framework and then the regulations and restrictions concerning working children are listed. In the following chapters regulations concerning apprentices are approached. In the last chapter practices of regulations and the state of vulnerable children with this regard is determined.

Method: An explanatory method based on field survey literature is used.

Excerpt: The laws regarding minimum age to start work are conflicting with each other. Primary Education Law (No:222), states that children between ages 6-14 attending compulsory primary school education can not be employed either in private or public sector with or without any payment. Though Public Health Law (No: 1593) prohibits working in manifacturing under the age of 12, Apprentice Law (No: 2089) brings 12 as minimum age, Labour Law (No: 1475) article 67 permits children that reached 13 years to work in jobs which will not effect their educational, menthal and physical status.(p.23)

Some Keywords: apprentices, occupational accident, children in need of protection, occupational disease, national regulation

 

Tezgider, G.(1979); “The State Of Children In The Professional Life”, Çalışma Dergisi, Magazine January-April, p. 57-66


Tezgider, G.(1979); “The State Of Children In The Professional Life”, Çalışma Dergisi, Magazine January-April, p. 57-66.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

In the article the differences in income distribution and the places where children work are discussed. The constitutional side of child labour is explained and the ruthless exploitation of children in labour markets and the destruction of physical, menthal and ethical development of children is emphasised. Also the working children are far away from school, social security and social protection. And it is also discussed if the student status given to apprentices helps the exploitation or not. Also the trade union membership and activities of apprentices are restricted.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Everday the need for determining the minimum age for working, the cutting of work hours and strengthening the law sanctions is discussed. But even these insufficient laws are not applied in practice. We can say that the laws which are violated the most are the ones concerning the protection against child labour. The children are forced to work for more than 8 hours and their health examinations are never done. Even if the sanctions of laws are ineffect there is not much to do as the employer has to pay 1500 liras if violated the laws. Child health is that cheap. (p.62)

Some Key Words:

minimum age, apprenticeship, child development, reasons of child labour, child health, trade unions, social security, national regulation

 

 

Fişek, A.G.(1979); “Protection of Chldren and Youth In Terms Of Human Rights’’, Okul Defteri Magazine, July, Issue No. 3, p. 19-21


Fişek, A.G.(1979); “Protection of Chldren and Youth In Terms Of Human Rights’’, Okul Defteri Magazine, July, Issue No. 3, p. 19-21.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The article is more law based. The reasons why children enter the working life is explained and then the development of social policy tools against child labour is discussed and national and international regulations are quoted. Also findings of a research made in Ankara Iskitler and Industrial Bazaar on apprentices and young workers and SSK’s (Social Insurance Institution) occupational accidents and diseases statistics are given.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The way to keep children and adolescents away from the protective umbrella of Labour Law is found in our country. The majority of this group is employed as apprentices. Some appliers of the law discuss if the new Apprentice and Master Workman Legislation is apart of the labour Law or not. This new law defines these apprentices who are required to take training at most of 8 hours as students. And when other aspects of this law is inspected it gives the impression that it is legislated not to protect the apprentices or the experineced apprentices to protect the employers. (p.20)

Some Key Words:

working conditions, apprentices, apprentice training, occupational accident, occupational disease, national regulation

Fişek, A.G.(1979); “Protection Of Children and Adolescents in Working Life”, Çalışma Dergisi, Magazine January-April, p. 3-36

Fişek, A.G.(1979); “Protection Of Children and Adolescents in Working Life”, Çalışma Dergisi, Magazine January-April, p. 3-36.

 

Number of Works Cited: 14

 

Scope:

Article depends the organisation of craftsmen and tradesmen on institutions like Akhism and Guilds and talks about the preventive social policy mesaures in the capitalist era. Also the legal issues take an important place in the article and the ‘Apprentice, Experinced Apprentice and Foreman’ legislation is discussed in depth. Also the profiles of tradesmen and craftsmen also took an important place in the article.

 

An Excerpt from the Article:

First of all it is important to determine which part of the working life this new legislation is going to be more effective. The type of education which depends on the apprentice, experienced apprentice and master workman is a more middle age era way. Although it was left in the middle ages this way of relationship still persists still in some countries. We think that this type of relationship cannot live in any other occupation apart from tradesmen and craftsmen. And we can see that the new legislation carries signs that it is made under the light of this thought. (p.12)

 

Some Key Words:

working conditions, Apprentice-Experineced Apprentice Master Workman System, trade-craftsmen, national regulation

Can, M.(1999); “The New Minimum Wage and Working Children’’, Calisma Ortami, January-February, Issue No. 42, p. 12-14


Can, M.(1999); “The New Minimum Wage and Working Children’’, Calisma Ortami, January-February, Issue No. 42, p. 12-14.

Number of Works Cited: 2

Scope:

In this article the determination of minimum wage process is explained. The comission is 2 partite rather than 3 when the government also acts as an employer as well. Poverty is the main reason for child labour and also the minimum wage and the child labour concepts ae highly interrealted. It is stated that the minimum wages should be determined with the guidance of human rights documents and their principles that are signed by the government. The duality in the minimum wage creates a legal base for the low wage child labour.

An Excerpt from the Article:

As it is also stated in the Convention On The Rights Of Child, the dual attitude towards minumum wage determination should be eliminated for a child labour free society depending on the principle of the protection of the child. (p.14)

Some Key Words:

minimum wage, child labour, national regulation