I was a Child, I was Little….. Child Labour in Turkey during 1920-1960

Title of the Study: I was a Child, I was Little…..

Child Labour in Turkey during 1920-1960

 

Type of the Study: Discussion Paper

 

Author of the Study: Ahmet Makal

 

Presentation,,

Year/Place of Publication: Ankara, 2006

 

Language of the Study: Turkish

 

Number of Pages: 41

 

Purpose: To discuss child labour in Turkey between 1920 1960 within legal, sectoral and economic terms.

 

Content: The paper has six parts. The first is on conceptual framework of child labour. Second part is about the legal and regulational framework. Quantity of working children is outlined in the third part. The sectoral distrubution of working children is discussed in the fourth part. Working conditions of child workers are highlighted in the fifth part. And sixth part is on international regulations and norms.

 

Method: Literature scanning method is used.

 

Excerpt: It can be clearly pointed out that there is a considerable amount of child labour in different sectors of the economy including small and medium enterprises between the years 1920-1960 in Turkey.

 

Some keywords: working children, working conditions, international regulation

 

 

Lordoğlu, K.(2002); ‘‘No Time to Play, But Streets are Ours’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine Issue No.60, January-February


Lordoğlu, K.(2002); ‘‘No Time to Play, But Streets are Ours’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine Issue No.60, January-February.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The first section described the working areas of children using the data from DIE’s Child Labour Survey of 1994 and 1999. Then, explanations are made about why the children are working, and the reasons they get into the working life in small ages with examples from different geographical regions. Outcomes of children working and the approach of national regulations are probed into in the final section.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Only to list down some of the problems that are encountered by children who have no time to play and are after work will render this article impossible to read. Both in Turkey and in all other countries where children are employed, different programs exist proposed against problems in child labour. International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labor(IPEC) of International Labor Organization is one of them. The Immediate Action Plan and Convention No. 182 on Eliminating Worst Forms of Child Labour and No.138 on the Minimum Age signed by Turkey aimed to fully prohibit child labor, which is not in harmony with the existing conditions. (p.11)

Some Keywords:

child labour, ILO-IPEC, national regulation, international regulation

 

Karabulut, Ö.(2005); ‘‘Children Working in Economical Jobs’’, Tes-İş Magazine, June 2005, p.65-70


Karabulut, Ö.(2005); ‘‘Children Working in Economical Jobs’’, Tes-İş Magazine, June 2005, p.65-70.

Number of Works Cited: 13

Scope:

The subject of child labor in Turkey has been discussed in figures using the data obtained from DIE’s Child Labour Surveys in 1994 and 1999. Working conditions of working children are discussed also in consideration of national regulations and ILO conventions. The results section gathers the discussed topics and makes some proposals.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Reasons underlying the working of children, their problems and solution are multi-dimensional, and it is not possible to abstract them from the basic problems of Turkey and from policies aimed at solving these problems. More and more children are entering the working life every passing day as a result of the socio-economic policies in force, and the number of children living and working on the streets increases in big cities, Istanbul being the foremost. (p.68)

Some Keywords:

ILO, children working on the streets, children living on the streets, national regulation, international regulation

 

Gürçay, C.; Kumaş, H.(2001); ‘‘Profile of Employed Children in the World and in Turkey’’, (In: Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara, 2001


Gürçay, C.; Kumaş, H.(2001); ‘‘Profile of Employed Children in the World and in Turkey’’, (In: Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara, 2001.

 

Number of Works Cited: 31

Scope:

The study creates a profile aimed at working children after giving information about the quality and quantity of working children in the world and in Turkey. After the Introductory section, the study discusses children employed on contract. The reasons for child employment have been argued and a panoramic look has been put on children employed in the world. Then the focus is turned to the children employed in Turkey and to their ages and job sectors. The study employs the child labour survey data of DIE for the years 1994 and 1999.

An Excerpt from the Article:

One of the points of the problem is that the rules aimed at the working life in the international dimension have been created in a manner encompassing all nations. Difference of development levels and internal dynamics of nations make arrangements considering local conditions necessary. And this puts into the agenda the working life practices much lower than international arrangements and light and heavy works classification and efforts to address the issue in the legal dimension.

Some Keywords:

minimum age, working children, child labour survey, international regulation

Güneş, T.(2001); ‘‘Working Children’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, April, 6:6-8


Güneş, T.(2001); ‘‘Working Children’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, April, 6:6-8.

Number of Works Cited: 2

Scope:

Child labour, causes and its status in Turkey are discussed using the data obtained from DIE’s 1994 and 1999 Child Labour Survey.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Children all over the world are generally employed in sectors like leather, brick production, gold mining, textile, carpet weaving, fishery, match production; while they are also used in dangerous jobs like prostitution, porn cassette production, drugs production etc. In its 87th General Conference in 1999, ILO has described child labour containing these conditions as unacceptable and has adopted the “Immediate Action Plan Relating to the Prohibition and Elimination of Worst Forms of Child Labour” No 182. It is estimated that the number of children working under these forms is about 60-70 millions. (p.6)

Some Keywords:

child labour, child labour survey, ILO, international regulation

 

Çelik, A.(2005); ‘‘On the Unending Story of Child Labour’’, Birikim Magazine, Issue No. 192, Istanbul, April


Çelik, A.(2005); ‘‘On the Unending Story of Child Labour’’, Birikim Magazine, Issue No. 192, Istanbul, April.

Number of Works Cited: 25

Scope:

The introductory section describes the term child labour, revealing the reasons underlying. Following section discusses the struggle against child labour in its historical perspective including Charles Dickens. The profile of child labour has been drawn based on the data of International Labor Organization (ILO). Subsequent sections describe the issue of child labour in Turkey, discussing solutions in consideration of EU norms.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Although child employment is encountered in many periods of history and this form of working had many dimensions, it is unarguable that child labour has become widespread together with the capitalist market. The idea of self-running market refused limitations on child labour for an extended period of time. (p.32)

Some Keywords:

child labour, ILO, international regulation

Bakırcı, K.(2004); ‘‘Child and Youth Labour in Turkey’’, Görüş Magazine, March, p.52-56


Bakırcı, K.(2004); ‘‘Child and Youth Labour in Turkey’’, Görüş Magazine, March, p.52-56.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The introduction section discusses the concept of child labour. And subsequent sections discuss the approach of International Labor Organization (ILO) to the subject and a summary is given in consideration of the current regulations in our country.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Child labour is illegal although it is considered illegal as mentioned above. This case is generally surrounded by the wall of silence and indifference. However, this wall started to crackle.

Some Keywords:

child labour, ILO, national regulation, international regulation

 

Aral, N.; Gürsoy, F.(2001); ‘‘Child Labour and Exploitation within the Frame of Children Rights’’, Milli Eğitim Magazine, Issue No.151


Aral, N.; Gürsoy, F.(2001); ‘‘Child Labour and Exploitation within the Frame of Children Rights’’, Milli Eğitim Magazine, Issue No.151.

Number of Works Cited: 25

Scope:

The issue of children rights and exploitation has been addressed within the frame of children rights. Relevant articles of the convention on children rights have been referenced and the subject has been deepened accordingly.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Non-protection of children, remaining uninterested against sexual exploitation and failure to give the required importance to sexual development is expressed as sexual negligence. Sexual exploitation is exploitation of a child for sexual satisfaction on allow another person to exploit the child for that purpose. Defined as an adult’s caressing a child’s sexual organs with the purpose of getting sexual pleasure, raping, making exhibitionism, and exploiting the child as means of pornography, sexual exploitation is considered to be a type of crime resorted by sexually impotent persons seeking sexual satisfaction with children. It is a known truth that the most common type of sexual exploitation not socially accepted and experienced most intensely sensual in the family or between persons that have blood ties with the child. However, it is rather difficult to distinguish between such cases. Researches reveal that sexual exploitation is common mostly between the ages of three to five.

Some Keywords:

child rights, child abuse, sexual exploitation of children, international regulation

 

Alpar, B.M.(2002); ‘‘Regulations on Working Life Related to the ILO Convention No.182 Concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of Worst Forms of Child Labour’’, Kamu-İş: İş Hukuku ve İktisat Magazine, Volume:7, Issue No.1


Alpar, B.M.(2002); ‘‘Regulations on Working Life Related to the ILO Convention No.182 Concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of Worst Forms of Child Labour’’, Kamu-İş: İş Hukuku ve İktisat Magazine, Volume:7, Issue No.1.

Number of Works Cited: 7

Scope:

After a short introduction conceptually discussing child labour, focus is made to the international law aspects of the topic; ILO conventions, and other international conventions are discussed. Subsequent sections focus on the legal aspects of the topic in our country.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Considering the socio-economic conditions of countries, insufficient resources and lack of infrastructure makes us think that it is hard to eliminate child labour in the short term. Its realization depends on improvement of social and economic conditions in many countries. So, ILO-IPEC set its priority as the Prevention of “Worst Forms of Child Labor”. (p.19)

Some Keywords:

child labour, ILO, socio-economic level, national regulation, international regulation

 

Globalization and Child Labour


Title of the Study: Globalization and Child Labour

Type of the Study: Specialization Thesis

Author of the Study: Savaş Yılmaz

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: Ankara, 2001 (TODAİE Public Administration Programme)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 204

Purpose: To examine the globalization connections of working children, study why the children are working in Turkey, which risks they are facing and inquire about studies made in this subject in Turkey, discuss whether or not there are any connections between the results of inquiries and the nature of relevant national and international regulations, to bring proposals about the subject.

Content: Part one discusses national and international regulations under the title of concepts and definitions; and definitions of concepts like child, working child and apprentice are made. Part two gives the reasons of child labour in the world and in Turkey, forms of usage of child labour and its distribution by sector. Part three discusses the New World Order and the effects of globalization on labour and labour force market under the title of ‘‘Change in the World’’, and the status of their effects in child labor in the world Part four discusses child labour in the case of Turkey. This part examines where Turkey is in globalization, effects of Customs Union on child labor, status of child labour, distribution by sectors, objective conditions, properties of family structure and which risks and pressures they faced. Part five discusses national and international regulations made on the topic.

Method: Literature scanning is used.

Excerpt: Although school services are given free of charge by the government, schooled child has an economic burden on the family. Direct cost of education on the family is the expenses made for books, notebooks, and other school items, school uniform, and transportation costs if the school is remote from house and lunch expenses. (s.51)

Some keywords: child workers, globalisation, international regulation

 

Importance of Child Employment and Child Labour from the Perspective of Human Resources Management in the World and in Turkey


Title of the Study: Importance of Child Employment and Child Labour from the Perspective of Human Resources Management in the World and in Turkey

Type of the Study: Master Thesis

Author of the Study: Ömür Oy

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: İstanbul, September 2001 (İstanbul University, Institute of Social Sciences Department of Human Resources Management)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 154

Purpose: The basic target of the study is to demonstrate the wearing nature of child employment that will damage development of future workforce, that is the children, in the future.

 

Content: Part one gives a detail of the place of children in working life. This part discusses basic information about working children and workplaces and working conditions of working children. Part two discusses the causes of child labour and the place of child labour in the legal system. Part three discusses the international dimension of child labour and national and international projects aimed at the improvement of child labour. Final part focuses on the plans to struggle with child labor.

Method: Types of child labour is examined under 4 groups and negative effects on children in each group are examined in their own dynamics. Emphasis is made on the causes of inability to end child labour, and by utilizing results of certain studies, and problems caused against the struggle against child labour are probed into.

Excerpt: While the number of children under 15 working in industrial jobs in the USA was 1.5 millions in 1850, this figure reached 2 millions in 1910. Businessmen liked the idea of hiring children. Children worked on lower wages compared to adults in jobs requiring no skills. Besides, small hands of children tended to better grasp small tools and small machinery accessories. (p.7)

Keywords: child labour, reasons of child labour, human resources, international regulation

 

 

Pirler, B. (1997); “Non Of The Economic Reasons Can Explain The Work Of Children In Bad Conditions”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine , March-June, Issue No. 31-32, p. 12-14


Pirler, B. (1997); “Non Of The Economic Reasons Can Explain The Work Of Children In Bad Conditions”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine , March-June, Issue No. 31-32, p. 12-14.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The article is based on 26-27 February Amsterdam International Child Labour Conference Report. The participants, activities and the aim of the conference is listed; and the worst forms of child labour are mentioned. Also the international attempts towards child labour has taken place and Amsterdam International Child Labour Conference is evaluated in national, international and european level at the end part.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The conference where child labour problem discussed within the framework of competiton power problem rose within the globalisation process and the efforts of linking international trade and social standards against the developing countries which are taking a greater share from international trade; 30 employer, worker, government and related institute delegates attend. (p.12)

Soe Key Words:

child labour, globalisation, social standards, international regulation

Gökler, B.(1995); “Forming Child Identity Within Working Children”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine , September-October, Issue No. 22, p. 33-35


Gökler, B.(1995); “Forming Child Identity Within Working Children”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine , September-October, Issue No. 22, p. 33-35.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

Within the framework of The Convention On The Rights of The Child, child rights and their location is discussed; the content of the regaining of child identity within the working children is presented.

An Excerpt from the Article :

In summary ‘‘The Regaining Of Child Identity’’ is the main theme of a protective health service approach towards working children; taking care of children and protecting them within the human rights framework is the definition of civilisation efforts. (p.35)

Some Key Words:

child labour, child rights, child identity, child health, international regulation

Fişek, A.G. (1992); “Mortgage To Countries’ Future: Child Labour”, Petrol-İş ’92 Torch, p. 481-494


Fişek, A.G. (1992); “Mortgage To Countries’ Future: Child Labour”, Petrol-İş ’92 Torch, p. 481-494.

Number of Works Cited: 11

Scope:

After determining the importance of child labour within the international human rights documents from a historical perspective the article continues with the consideration of Turkey in this framework. The child labour concept and its compatibility with human rights issue is taken up within the 3 main human rights tools (The right to work in a healthy and safe place, education right, the right to satisfy basic human needs). The distruction that was caused in the society because of the use of child labur is a mortgage on future and the efforts to recover the situtaion can not be seperated from the efforts to enhance the human rights concepts are discussed in the result and evaluation part.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Either to contribute to family income, or to get rid of future needs child labour(apprenticeship) is an economic concept. The early entry of children into labour markets which has a more economic explanation, withdraws children from education which will make it impossible for them to reach the maximum of their skills. Therefore, child labour can not be considered as a part of the socialising process. (p.486)

Some Key Words:

working conditions, child labour, human rights, socialisation, international regulation

Ministry of labour and Social Security(1997), “Working Children News Bulletin”, Issue No.3, Ankara


Ministry of labour and Social Security(1997), “Working Children News Bulletin”, Issue No.3, Ankara.

Number Of Works Cited: 6

Scope:

Erhan Batur gives an extract of the European Council’s Fight Against Child Labour Advice

and also discusses the parliament’s decision taken on the third term general council in 1997. Ali Saraç’s article is on working environment and child labour which presents childhood, the working conditions of children and the negative effects of the physical, menthal and ergonomic factors evident in the atmosphere. It is stated that the effects of these conditions barriers the ethical, menthal and physical growth of children. The importance of keeping away children from work is also discussed whereby they can attend schools and get the education essential for them selves to have bright futures.

Some Key Words:

working conditions, child workers, ILO-IPEC, international regulation