Sunal, O.(2007); ‘‘5-6 February 2007 Paris Conference and Child Soldiers’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No.91, March-April


Sunal, O.(2007); ‘‘5-6 February 2007 Paris Conference and Child Soldiers’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No.91, March-April.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The history of child soldiers that is recently attracting attention from the world media is rather long. Following the movie ‘Blood Diamond’ premiered in 2007, concepts such as trade, poverty, globalization, and exploitation started to be discussed again. And the Paris Conference has been made to demonstrate the situation in Africa where income made through diamond trade is spent directly to buy weapons and to prevent the use of such weapons by children. Child labour has been listed among unacceptable works in ILO’s Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention No. 182.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The subject of child soldiers attracted the attention of (UN) United Nations and (United Nations International Child Fund) UNICEF when in the 1990s wars and civil wars and struggles particularly in Africa and in other continents started to increase. Because an important part of these wars and civil disorders was in poorest countries, armed groups easily recruited 100.000s of children by deceiving, kidnapping, frightening and applying violence. All children male and female started to be used to work in different jobs by force. Children aged 6-7, nearly baby-aged, were being used to lay mines, bring and send news, make meals and more importantly, fight with guns in their hands. And female children were forced to have sexual intercourse with soldiers in their early ages and exploited.

Some Keywords:

Africa, child soldiers, child exploitation, sexual exploitation of children, diamonds, globalisation, arm traders

 

 

 

Senemoğlu, N.(2001); ‘‘Children’s Rights, Working Children and Educational Problems’’, Milli Eğitim Magazine, No: 151, MEB Publications, Ankara, July-September, pp.1-12


Senemoğlu, N.(2001); ‘‘Children’s Rights, Working Children and Educational Problems’’, Milli Eğitim Magazine, No: 151, MEB Publications, Ankara, July-September, pp.1-12.

Number of Works Cited: 30

Scope:

Discussing the working children and their educational problems, this article comprises the following sections: Participation of Child Population to Education and Workforce in Turkey and Problems, General Educational Problems of Working Children and Proposals for Solution and Vocational Training Problems of Children Working in SMEs and Proposals for Solutions.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Moreover, while the number of female children employed in the city between the ages 15 and 19 were lower in 1991 and 1994 compared to male children in cities, in rural areas they were more than male in 1991 April, and near the number of male children in 1994 October. This may be due to the fact, as given above, that male in the cities are working mostly in the industry and in agriculture in rural areas. However, in 1997, employment ratios of female children between 15 and 19 are higher than male children both in urban and rural areas. It is even observed that employment of girls between 15 and 19 is higher than male children at a ratio of about 1/3. This may be an indicator that female children start working at earlier ages in urban and rural areas and may also be a result of female children being unable to continue with their education. Considering the schooling ratios of male and female children at these ages, there is a consistency between the findings.

Some Keywords:

apprentice training, child rights, child employment, globalisation

 

 

Sapancalı, F.(2002); ‘‘Child Labor With Regards Globalization and Efforts Aimed at its Elimination’’, Çimento İşveren Magazine, Volume:16, Issue No.4, Cement Producing Employers’ Union, Ankara, July


Sapancalı, F.(2002); ‘‘Child Labor With Regards Globalization and Efforts Aimed at its Elimination’’, Çimento İşveren Magazine, Volume:16, Issue No.4, Cement Producing Employers’ Union, Ankara, July.

Number of Works Cited: 11

Scope:

In this study discussing child labour, an issue that is expecting to receive immediate solution and that has to be a top priority in world agenda, first the basic dynamics increasing child labour with regard to globalization and then existing measures and efforts developed aimed at the elimination and protection of child employment are discussed.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Restructuring process of capital accumulation at the international level created some positive and negative effects particularly for developing nations. In line with some of the developing nations are offering suitable social environment possibilities for international capital accumulation, international capital has entered into these nations. Concentration of productive investments concentrating in under-developed nations caused the establishment of some important relationships. The most important of such forms of relationship are the international subcontracting relationships. Subcontracting is the transfer of certain parts of the product it produced itself to a unit outside the factory with a subcontract, and is based on the principle that harder and costlier parts of the production are caused to be made by units in other work spaces. (p.21)

Some Keywords:

child employment, globalisation, contract-out

Özdemir, A.M.; Özdemir, Y.G.(2005); ‘‘Is a World Without Child Labor Possible?’’, Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.71-76


Özdemir, A.M.; Özdemir, Y.G.(2005); ‘‘Is a World Without Child Labor Possible?’’, Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.71-76.

Number of Works Cited: 10

Scope:

First part of the study explains child labour in central capitalist countries within the international division of labour. The second part discusses child labor in surrounding capitalist countries. Then, arguments aimed at the regulation of child labour in surrounding capitalist countries are studied. This section focuses on the tools as to “how” child labour will be regulated, then the “reasons” underlying the discussion of regulation of child labour in global capitalism. Lastly, basic claims of parties to this discussion are given.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Some may think that there will not be contrary opinions about the classification and elimination of child labour; but there are many supporters as well as opponents of labour standards in contracts ensuring free circulation of capital–which contains the prohibition of child labour. Therefore, in this study we aim to open to discussion the global labour standards and reactions given to these standards from a certain perspective. (p.72)

Some Keywords:

child labour, globalisation

 

Özdemir, A.M.; Özdemir, Y.G.(2005); ‘‘PoliticaL Economics of Child Labour in Global Capitalism’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, 23:8-15


Özdemir, A.M.; Özdemir, Y.G.(2005); ‘‘PoliticaL Economics of Child Labour in Global Capitalism’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, 23:8-15.

Number of Works Cited: 16

Scope:

First part of the study explains child labour in central capitalist countries within the international division of labour. The second part discusses child labour in surrounding capitalist countries. Then, arguments aimed at the regulation of child labour in surrounding capitalist countries are studied. This section focuses on the tools as to “how” child labour will be regulated, then the “reasons” underlying the discussion of regulation of child labour in global capitalism. Lastly, basic claims of parties to this discussion are given.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Efforts in central countries aimed at the classification and regulation of child labour created the main axis of social struggle in the social policy area in the 19th and 20th centuries. Accumulation of wealth at the center in parallel with capitalism’s rule of unequal development on the world, technological development level in parallel with this wealth, social welfare state practices during the period called the “golden age” of capitalism and about 200 years of class struggle in these countries ensured that central countries have regulations limiting and protecting child labor. (p.9)

Some Keywords:

child workers, globalisation, social politics

 

 

Globalization and Child Labour


Title of the Study: Globalization and Child Labour

Type of the Study: Specialization Thesis

Author of the Study: Savaş Yılmaz

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: Ankara, 2001 (TODAİE Public Administration Programme)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 204

Purpose: To examine the globalization connections of working children, study why the children are working in Turkey, which risks they are facing and inquire about studies made in this subject in Turkey, discuss whether or not there are any connections between the results of inquiries and the nature of relevant national and international regulations, to bring proposals about the subject.

Content: Part one discusses national and international regulations under the title of concepts and definitions; and definitions of concepts like child, working child and apprentice are made. Part two gives the reasons of child labour in the world and in Turkey, forms of usage of child labour and its distribution by sector. Part three discusses the New World Order and the effects of globalization on labour and labour force market under the title of ‘‘Change in the World’’, and the status of their effects in child labor in the world Part four discusses child labour in the case of Turkey. This part examines where Turkey is in globalization, effects of Customs Union on child labor, status of child labour, distribution by sectors, objective conditions, properties of family structure and which risks and pressures they faced. Part five discusses national and international regulations made on the topic.

Method: Literature scanning is used.

Excerpt: Although school services are given free of charge by the government, schooled child has an economic burden on the family. Direct cost of education on the family is the expenses made for books, notebooks, and other school items, school uniform, and transportation costs if the school is remote from house and lunch expenses. (s.51)

Some keywords: child workers, globalisation, international regulation

 

Pirler, B. (1997); “Non Of The Economic Reasons Can Explain The Work Of Children In Bad Conditions”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine , March-June, Issue No. 31-32, p. 12-14


Pirler, B. (1997); “Non Of The Economic Reasons Can Explain The Work Of Children In Bad Conditions”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine , March-June, Issue No. 31-32, p. 12-14.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The article is based on 26-27 February Amsterdam International Child Labour Conference Report. The participants, activities and the aim of the conference is listed; and the worst forms of child labour are mentioned. Also the international attempts towards child labour has taken place and Amsterdam International Child Labour Conference is evaluated in national, international and european level at the end part.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The conference where child labour problem discussed within the framework of competiton power problem rose within the globalisation process and the efforts of linking international trade and social standards against the developing countries which are taking a greater share from international trade; 30 employer, worker, government and related institute delegates attend. (p.12)

Soe Key Words:

child labour, globalisation, social standards, international regulation

Düzgünoğu, R.A.(1997); “Child Labour Exploitation In The Third World’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine , March-June, p. 31-32, sayfa 10-11

Düzgünoğu, R.A.(1997); “Child Labour Exploitation In The Third World’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine , March-June, p. 31-32, sayfa 10-11.

 

Number of Works Cited: 5

 

Scope:

Child labour in the world and in our country is discussed. The subchapters of the article is as follows; child labour in agriculture, child labour in industry and mines, child prostitutes, employment types of child labour, barriers to the elimination of child labour: globalisation and poverty.

 

An Excerpt from the Article:

Globalisation in manifacturing means that some parts of production processes can be shifted to countries where labour costs are low. As the comparative advantage theory in international trade comes back into the literature successfully, high amounts of child labour gives an important advantage to the least developed economies which compete with their low labour costs. So, this creates an environment where child labour is fed by globalisation. Therefore, elimination of child labour in this situation is just a wishful thought which does not coincide with the realities. (p.11)

 

Some Key Words:

child labour, prostitution, globalisation, child labour in agriculture, poverty