Gender, Education and Child Labour in Turkey


Title of the Study: Gender, Education and Child Labour in Turkey

 

Type of the Study: Research – Evaluation Report (The work has been conducted within the scope of the ILO-IPEC Programme.)

Author of the Study: Prof.Dr. Yakın Ertürk

Assoc.Prof.Dr. Meltem Dayıoğlu

 

Presentation,,

Year/Place of Publication: 2004, Geneva

Language of the Study: English

Number of Pages: 170

Purpose: This study examines the connections between gender, education and child labour and the subject has been considered from a new perspective in consideration of ILO-IPEC projects conducted and completed in Turkey. Considering child labor only from a commercial perspective, many areas not made for money but child labour is exploited are excluded. Particularly the works done by female children are important here. Considering schooling ratios and education years, there are differences with regards both the areas worked and education received by girls and boys.

Content: First part focuses on the concept of child labour and gives a brief of child labour in Turkey. Part 2 explains the contents and purposes of ILO-IPEC projects conducted in Turkey. Part 3 discusses the concept of gender with regards child labor. Part 4 give macro-level analyses and addresses development, human development, demographic profile, economical environment, income distribution, educational system and regional-sexual differences. Part 5 studies the opportunities and challenges regarding schooling. Part 6 focuses on employment and school participation issues. And Part 7 gives a conclusion.

Method: This study generally adopts a conceptual perspective and to support this, it has benefited from the Household Labour survey conducted in 1994-1999 by DIE.

This study first addressed the concepts of variety of works, and sexuality-based labour. From this sexuality perspective, social-sectoral labor force distribution and from here where the child labour is situated in this sexuality-based labor distribution is have been touched. To do this, micro, meso and macro level analyses have been resorted as supplementary.

Excerpt: ‘This book began with the objective to examine the gender differentials in child labour and educational attainment of children in Turkey. The underlying motivation behind this endeavour was to contribute to development of an integrated approach to gender, education and child labour so that effective intervention strategies may be developed to eradicate child labour while increasing the educational attainment of boys and girls and to overcome existing gender disparities.

Some keywords: gender discrimination, apprentices, apprentice training, human development, socio-economic level

 

 

Dayıoğlu, M.(2005); ‘‘General Trends in Working Lives of Working Children’’, Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.45-50


Dayıoğlu, M.(2005); ‘‘General Trends in Working Lives of Working Children’’, Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.45-50.

Number of Works Cited: 3

Scope:

An article written based on a survey by DIE made in 1994 and 1999 and the author’s work titled ‘‘Gender Education and Child Labour in Turkey’’. Statistics are given and comparisons are made about working children. The subject has also been addressed from a gender point of view and important information is given about the ratios of male-female employment. Following sections discussed improvements on a sector basis, with the dimensions of the subject in the informal sector.

An Excerpt from the Article:

It is impossible to say that same level of improvement has occurred for children over the age of compulsory education. Although they have less presence in the working life, an important percentage of children between the ages 15 and 17 still continue working. (p.50)

Some Keywords:

gender discrimination, working children, child labour survey, informal sector

 

Balcı, Y.G.(2002); ‘‘A Different Dimension in Child Exploitation: Sexual Discrimination in Working Children’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No.61, March-April


Balcı, Y.G.(2002); ‘‘A Different Dimension in Child Exploitation: Sexual Discrimination in Working Children’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No.61, March-April.

Number of Works Cited: 14

Scope:

Child labor has been discussed from the sexuality point of view using the Child Labour Survey made by State Statistics Institute (DIE) in 1999. Using available official data, participation percentages of male and female children to the working life have been discussed, together with how these percentages changed with the progress of age.

An Excerpt from the Article:

As a result, upon examination of the 1999 Child Labour Survey and in the light of these findings, it is clearly seen that sexuality is a source of exploitation in addition to child labour. Effects of this exploitation take place in the long term. That female children work in selected jobs without the purpose of learning a profession and removing themselves from professional life in order to become a good wife and mother for cultural and socio-economic reasons in accordance with the role determined by the society and contributing the family and her own dowry cause them to remain as unqualified labour. (p.19)

Some Keywords:

family, gender discrimination, working children, child labour survey, child abuse, economic contribution, socio-economic level