Subaşı, M., Kubilay, G.(2003); ‘‘Properties of Families and Dwellings of Children Living/Working in the Streets’’, Hemşirelikte Araştırma Geliştirme Magazine, 5:2, Ankara, December


Subaşı, M., Kubilay, G.(2003); ‘‘Properties of Families and Dwellings of Children Living/Working in the Streets’’, Hemşirelikte Araştırma Geliştirme Magazine, 5:2, Ankara, December.

Number of Works Cited: 35

Scope:

The study has been made to determine the properties of families and dwellings of children living/working in the streets. This is a descriptive study. Data is gathered using the questionnaire created by the researcher by face to face talks with the families included in the sample group between July-November 2000. The study universe comprises 280 children working in the streets registered with Ulus Children and Youth Center operating under the Social Services and Child Protection Agency and the families of 20 children living in the streets registered Ankara Governorship Children Education and Treatment Center aged between 7 and 14. The sample group is the 30 families of 49 children accessed between July–November. Obtained data is evaluated with regards numbers and percentiles.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Situations like fast population increase in major cities, unplanned urbanization, migration, poverty, increasing inflation, unemployment, accommodation in poor conditions, family violence, disruption of family integrity and loss of social support of family have negative effects on the family and all family individuals. In addition to these factors, situations such as alcohol and substance addiction in the family, father leaving the house, parents’ marriage to other persons, absence of money-bringing person, seeking of adventure, physical exploitation, sexual harassment and rape, low educational level, insufficient educational facilities, and traditional attitudes of the society are affecting mostly the children among all family members. These factors cause the children to get away from the family environment and lead to the street, a setting increasing the potential to commit crimes.

Some Keywords:

family, migration, residence properties, substance addiction, children working on the streets, children living on the streets, poverty

 

Peker, M.(2000); ‘‘An Essay on Child Employment’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No.53, November-December


Peker, M.(2000); ‘‘An Essay on Child Employment’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No.53, November-December.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The subject of child labour has been discussed in the initial paragraphs with regard to demography. Source transfer and big transformation point, the two conceptual approaches, have been discussed. Then, mentioning the migration phenomenon in our country, causes of child labour are probed. Effects of migration from rural parts to cities are discussed.

An Excerpt from the Article:

When classification is made with these concepts, it is difficult that all families may be in the same form in any society. In other words, there may be families where there are two forms in the same society. Moreover, there might also be intermediary generation (transferring source to both children and parents) forms representing transition between two forms. What are important is where the majority of families is and their behavioral patterns within the transformation process. (p.2)

Some Keywords:

family, child employment, population science

 

 

Erder, S.(2005); ‘‘Working Children: Apprentice or Worker?’’Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.38-44


Erder, S.(2005); ‘‘Working Children: Apprentice or Worker?’’Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.38-44.

Number of Works Cited: 11

Scope:

The article discusses some trends observed in a field study conducted some 10 years ago about working children. In this study, which is relation-seeking rather than representative, some observations are made about the positions of children working in Istanbul. This field study is based on interviews made in 1993 with children and their employers in Istanbul Umraniye small-sized industrial workplaces; and interviews and observations made with the ‘‘Apprentice Training Center’’ in this region and some workplaces that have launched apprentice training initiatives at their workplaces.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The first point that attracted our attention during the study about working children was that they were not homogenous with regard to their poverty degree, family relationships, origins, working conditions and working motives of children. Likewise, the study conducted by Altıntaş in Ankara also emphasizes that children working on streets are not homogenous groups. Again, studies reveal that the experiences of female children in working life have clear differences compared to those of male children. (p.38)

Some Keywords:

family, working children, working conditions, apprentices, apprentice training, reasons of child labour, girl child labour, poverty

 

 

Başargan, H.N.; Kümbül, B.(2001); ‘‘A Look on the Issue of Working Children from A Family Perspective’’, (in the ‘Seminar on Working Children in Turkey’), DIE Publications, Ankara, p.137-161


Başargan, H.N.; Kümbül, B.(2001); ‘‘A Look on the Issue of Working Children from A Family Perspective’’, (in the ‘Seminar on Working Children in Turkey’), DIE Publications, Ankara, p.137-161.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The study first puts a definition of child based on the fact that the issue of working children might be approached differently by societies with different socio-economic structures, different cultures, and education levels, and comments are made about how the perception of child might be. After a detailed analysis about the value of children, starting from the definition of working child, topics like why children are obliged to work and which factors pushed them to the working life, focusing on the negative psychological influences created by working phenomenon on the psycho-social development of child. Finally, based on the fact that the family is an important determining factor on a child labour, some important results from a survey conducted on families of working children has been presented from a study made in İzmir within the scope of the ILO-IPEC project.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Aries connects his perception of childhood in such a way to the child’s full participation of adult life and this indirectly results from the structure of family and society at that time. Social life in the Medieval Ages was one that was very intensively experienced. (p.71)

Some Keywords:

family, working children, ILO-IPEC, socio-economic level

 

 

 

Balcı, Y.G.(2002); ‘‘A Different Dimension in Child Exploitation: Sexual Discrimination in Working Children’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No.61, March-April


Balcı, Y.G.(2002); ‘‘A Different Dimension in Child Exploitation: Sexual Discrimination in Working Children’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No.61, March-April.

Number of Works Cited: 14

Scope:

Child labor has been discussed from the sexuality point of view using the Child Labour Survey made by State Statistics Institute (DIE) in 1999. Using available official data, participation percentages of male and female children to the working life have been discussed, together with how these percentages changed with the progress of age.

An Excerpt from the Article:

As a result, upon examination of the 1999 Child Labour Survey and in the light of these findings, it is clearly seen that sexuality is a source of exploitation in addition to child labour. Effects of this exploitation take place in the long term. That female children work in selected jobs without the purpose of learning a profession and removing themselves from professional life in order to become a good wife and mother for cultural and socio-economic reasons in accordance with the role determined by the society and contributing the family and her own dowry cause them to remain as unqualified labour. (p.19)

Some Keywords:

family, gender discrimination, working children, child labour survey, child abuse, economic contribution, socio-economic level

 

Comparison of Mothers with and Without Working Children with Regard to Child Labour and Attitudes About Education


Title of the Study: Comparison of Mothers with and Without Working Children with Regard to Child Labour and Attitudes About Education

Type of the Study: Master Thesis

Author of the Study: Senem Özdemir

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: Ankara, 2002 (Ankara University Institute of Social Sciences Department of Psychology)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 82

Purpose: Comparison of mothers with and without working children with

Regard to child labour and attitudes about education and researching whether or not such attitudes are differing based on causing their children to work or not.

Content: First part discusses general concepts about child labour. Second part discusses the method of study. Third part discuses the findings and fourth part is for discussion purposes.

Method: The study sample is the mothers with different education and socio-economic levels domiciled in Yalova. The study consisted of 150 mothers (75 with working children and 75 without working children). Survey on children used by Çiğdem Kağıtçıbaşı in its ‘‘Value of Child Survey’’ and attitude scale prepared by researcher about child labour and education as means of data collection. Age and education status demographic information are applied by adding to other data collection tools utilized.

Excerpt: That most of the children with working children are illiterate should require that they do not have high levels of awareness. That they are illiterate and that they do not know even Turkish minimizes their chances of self-development. (p.50)

Some keywords: family, apprentice training, value of child, child workers

 

 

 

 

Children Working in The Streets, Their Families and Children’s Rights: A Study in Ankara


Title of the Study: Children Working in The Streets, Their Families and Children’s Rights: A Study in Ankara

Type of the Study: Master Thesis

Author of the Study: Tülin Kuşgözoğlu

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: Ankara, 2005 (TODAİE Public Administration Programme)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 277

Purpose: Family dimension in the child-family-society triangle that lies in the basis of the problem is studied by way of data gathering from children working in the streets and their families. The study tries to determine the profiles of families of children working in the streets and some data about their opinions on children’s rights, information and application levels are accessed.

Content: Part one discusses definitions and concepts about children working in the streets. Part two looks at the problem of children working in the streets from the dimension of children’s rights. Part three includes a study made in Ankara.

Method: Interviews are made with 55 families living in Ankara whose children are working on the streets. Data is gathered by individual interviews thru forms prepared by researcher. Interviewed families in the study are chosen by random sampling from among families found to have their children working on the streets during previously made studies at Ulus and Fatma Üçer Child and Youth Centers and Altındağ Community Center operating under SHÇEK Ankara Social Services Directorate.

Excerpt: Children working in the streets phenomenon seen as a form of poverty and child labour in the most general sense covers almost all of the children’s rights violations. Particularly during recent years, addressed in priority by international organizations, this case is almost passing in front of child labour. (s.147)

Some keywords: family, working conditions, child rights, children working on the streets, poverty

 

 

 

Determination of Risk Factors for Child Labor; Comparison of Health Status of Children Workers and Students Attending School

Title of the Study:     Determination of Risk Factors for Child Labor; Comparison of Health Status of Children Workers and Students Attending School

Type of the Study:         Medical Specialization Thesis

Author of the Study:        Dr. Binali Çıtak

Presentation,
Year/Place of Publication:    Denizli, 2006 (Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine
Public Health Department)

Language of the Study:     Turkish

Number of Pages:        102

Purpose:    To evaluate the affect of family’s social status and some socio-demographic properties on children workers and to compare the health status of the children working and the children going to school.

Content:    In the first chapter an introduction takes place. In the second chapter the concepts of child and child workers have explained and legitimate framework has brought up. In the third chapter, the method of the search has been described and in the fourth chapter findings have set forth.

Method:    In the study, that effective factors on children workers has been searched, fact control method has been used. While child workers, aged 18 and under 18, taking education in the Vali Necati Bilican Occupational Education Center have considered as fact group, the students, aged 18 and under 18, taking education in the intensive high schools have considered as control group.

Excerpt:        The relationship between family’s social status and child workers constitutes one of the main findings of this study. In one study carried out, unemployment of father, increases working of children 3 times has reported.

Some keywords:    family, apprentice training, child labour, child health, social status, socio-demographic level, poverty

Zeytinoğlu, S.(1989) “The State Of Children In Turkey”, Child Policy of 1990’s Congress, DPT-UNICEF publications, Ankara, p. 241-252


Zeytinoğlu, S.(1989) “The State Of Children In Turkey”, Child Policy of 1990’s Congress, DPT-UNICEF publications, Ankara, p. 241-252.

Number of Works Cited: 10

Scope:

In the presentation, a panoromic vision of child labour in today’s world is pictured and the problem of child exploitation is discussed by defining the related concepts. The apprentice training, and the protection of children with legal regulations and their effectivity and defects are explained. Also suggestions to the problems of working children are presented.

An Exscerpt from the Article:

In today’s world millions of children are exploited in situations far worse than taking part in simple family labour division. Within the industrialisation process masses of people migrated from rural areas to cities and the ineffective social services to the poor and insufficeint employment opportunities for survival resulted in the participation of children in workforce outside of the family. (p.242)

Some Key Words:

family, working children, apprentice training, apprenticeship, child abuse, migration