Sevinç, E., Kösecik, M., Koçyiğit, A., Soran, M., Baz, T., Ertaş, T., Karazeybek, H.A. (2004); ‘‘The Blood Lead Level and The Effect of lead on Hematological Parameters in Auto Industry Apprentices in Şanlıurfa’’, Journal of Harran University Faculty of Medicine, Vol.1, No.4.

Sevinç, E., Kösecik, M., Koçyiğit, A., Soran, M., Baz, T., Ertaş, T., Karazeybek, H.A. (2004); ‘‘The Blood Lead Level and The Effect of lead on Hematological Parameters in Auto Industry Apprentices in Şanlıurfa’’, Journal of Harran University Faculty of Medicine, Vol.1, No.4.

Number of Works Cited: 22

Scope:

The level of lead in human blood rises as a consequence of industrialization process. Low level of exposure for long time periods which results to asymptomatic lead poisoning causes behavioral abnormalities, difficulty of perception and failure in school that can be classified as non-specific symptoms. The purpose of the study is to determine the effects of lead exposure on hematological parametres of apprentices who work in occupations where lead exposure is frequent.

An Excerpt from the Article:

As a result lead poisoning is an important environmental health problem in our region and in our country among young children. The most sensitive group are children and workers who are exposed to lead because of their occupation. Keeping them from environments polluted with lead, washing hands and acquiring a diet rich in calcium, ferrum and protein is the best way of protection from lead. Asymptomatic lead poisoning risk is high among all children in Şanlıurfa. As precaution, the sources known as a cause of lead poisoning should be detected, some limitations to production and usage of lead should be applied, unleaded petrol should be used more widely, the whole society, especially who work in the fields in which tehere is an intensive contact with lead, should be informed of the sources, damages, protection ways from lead poisoning, and finally, scan programs should be started (p.37).

Some Keywords:

Asymptomatic lead poisoning, auto industry, child workers

 

Special Risk Factors on Children at Work

Title of the Study: Special Risk Factors on Children at Work

 

Type of the Study: Report-Research

 

Authors of the Study: Gürhan Fişek

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: 1995, Ankara

 

Language of the Study: English

 

Number of Pages: 46

 

Purpose: To explain urban and rural empolyment of children, to outline occupational safety and health conditions of children in manifacturing industry, construction and agriculture.

 

Content: Our research effort is composed of three main parts, the first of which comprises a retrospective evaluation of the situation. Basic data is derived from retrospective questions to present-day adult workers, in relation to the working conditions, etc., of their respective childhoods. The second group of enquiries, cross-section in nature, has been directed towards those workers who are, simultaneously, children and workers. Finally, the last group of enquiries takes the form of three seperate research efforts into working conditions in the threemajor sectors of the study, i.e., agriculture, construction, and the manifacturing industry.

 

Method: Retrospective questions approach is adopted.

 

 

Excerpt: Finally, efforts should be made to mobilise all means and opportunities to better existing conditions of workplace health and safety, and small-scale enterprises should be motivated (if necesssary, subsidised) to join in. (p.34)

 

Some Keywords: child workers, occupational safety and health, small and medium enterprises

 

 

 

Time Bound Programme: Achievements and Recent Developments So Far in Turkey


Title of the Study: Time Bound Programme: Achievements and Recent Developments So Far in Turkey

Type of the Study: Time Bound Programme Turkey Promotion Book

Author of the Study: ILO Ankara Office

 

Presentation,,

Year/Place of Publication: 2005, Ankara

Language of the Study: English

Number of Pages: 32

Purpose: A published book to promote what kind of method will be followed regarding reaching targets in Turkey between the years 2004-2014 within the frame of the Time Bound Programme (TBP).

 

 

Content: The booklet first sets out what TBP is. To eliminate the worst forms of child labor, it has been explained how the targets of time-bound programme are made. In this regard, the Time-Bound National Policy and Programme Framework (TPPPF) created by the government in partnership with ILO-IPEC have been discussed. How the government, relevant municipalities, public agencies, private enterprises and non-governmental organizations have to cooperate to reach the targets are outlined. The legal aspect of the issue and strategies to be followed to reach the targets are briefly given.

Method: A published book to promote what kind of method will be followed regarding reaching targets in Turkey between the years 2004-2014 within the frame of the Time Bound Programme together with the national Policy and Programme.

Excerpt: It is the government’s responsibility to set the process of TBP development in motion, designate or establish the institutional mechanisms for its implementation, and mobilize the necessary human and financial resources.

Some keywords: child workers, ILO-IPEC, time bound programme

Turkey, Working Street Children in Three Metropolitan Cities: A Rapid Assessment


Title of the Study: Turkey, Working Street Children in Three Metropolitan Cities: A Rapid Assessment

 

Type of the Study: Research –Evaluation Report (The study has been conducted within the scope of the ILO-IPEC Programme

Authors of the Study: Dr. Bahattin Akşit

Dr. Nuray Karancı

Dr. Ayşe Gündüz Hoşgör

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: November 2001, Geneva

Language of the Study: English

Number of Pages: 99

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the jobs made by street children in Adana, Diyarbakır and İstanbul, revealing the living and working conditions and family socio-demographic characteristics of these children, examination of the look of children and families on the issues of working on the street and education, and studying the perspectives and attitudes of specialists from various institutes and customers.

Content: The study comprises 6 parts. The first part gives the purpose, scope and methodology of the study. Part 2 gives the demographical, education and socio-economic profiles of 3 cities. Part 3 discusses the legal and organizational aspects of the topic. Part 4 draws a profile of children working in the streets. Types of works done by children, their working hours, monies earned, conditions, living conditions, educational status, perspectives of police, people and customers, future expectations and dreams of children are discussed. And part 5 describes the families of children working in the streets, and their profiles are given with regard to their socio-economic, socio-demographic, and migration histories and families’ perspectives on working on the streets are probed into. Part 6 is the conclusion section.

Method: ILO-UNICEF’s ‘Rapid Assessment Methodology’ method has been implemented. 4 types of data gathering techniques were used to illustrate the family situations, working conditions, schooling and general attitudes of working children : (1) Semi-planned interviews made in these 3 cities with 188 working children and 65 parents. (2) In-depth focus group interviews with relevant organizations and customers, (3) observations about the working areas and living quarters of children. (4) review of literature about children working in the streets

Excerpt: Attitudes of sellers against these children have similarities with that of customers. Some of them know them very well because they encounter every day and help them in certain things. However, because the owners of some expensive product shops see them as threat for themselves and for their customers, they don’t want them to be nearby. (p.56)

Some keywords: child workers, migration, children working on the streets, socio-demographic level, socio-economic level

 

 

Özdemir, A.M.; Özdemir, Y.G.(2005); ‘‘PoliticaL Economics of Child Labour in Global Capitalism’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, 23:8-15


Özdemir, A.M.; Özdemir, Y.G.(2005); ‘‘PoliticaL Economics of Child Labour in Global Capitalism’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, 23:8-15.

Number of Works Cited: 16

Scope:

First part of the study explains child labour in central capitalist countries within the international division of labour. The second part discusses child labour in surrounding capitalist countries. Then, arguments aimed at the regulation of child labour in surrounding capitalist countries are studied. This section focuses on the tools as to “how” child labour will be regulated, then the “reasons” underlying the discussion of regulation of child labour in global capitalism. Lastly, basic claims of parties to this discussion are given.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Efforts in central countries aimed at the classification and regulation of child labour created the main axis of social struggle in the social policy area in the 19th and 20th centuries. Accumulation of wealth at the center in parallel with capitalism’s rule of unequal development on the world, technological development level in parallel with this wealth, social welfare state practices during the period called the “golden age” of capitalism and about 200 years of class struggle in these countries ensured that central countries have regulations limiting and protecting child labor. (p.9)

Some Keywords:

child workers, globalisation, social politics

 

Ocakçı, A.(2001); ‘‘Status of Working Children in Turkey’’, Hacettepe University Magazine, Volume:8, Issue No.1, Ankara, January-June, pp.120-132


Ocakçı, A.(2001); ‘‘Status of Working Children in Turkey’’, Hacettepe University Magazine, Volume:8, Issue No.1, Ankara, January-June, pp.120-132.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

Child labour has been studied using data from DIE Child Labour Survey of 1994 and 1999.

An Excerpt from the Article:

As a result, children are working under many working conditions for numerous reasons. However, child labour has three aspects that should be taken into consideration. First is that an important and high number of children are starting work at a very early age. The second is many children are forced to work in an employment relationship that is open to exploitation and misuse (such as those serving at houses and under debt dependency). Lastly, it is known that yet many other children are working for extended hours, are rarely benefiting from sufficient nutrition, health services and educational facilities and are mostly receiving very low wages. (p.9)

Some Keywords:

child workers, child labour survey, child abuse, child exploitation

 

 

 

Güler, E.Ç.(2001); ‘‘Child Labour and Education’’, In: (Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara, p.67-99


Güler, E.Ç.(2001); ‘‘Child Labour and Education’’, In: (Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara, p.67-99.

Number of Works Cited: 9

Scope:

The articles tries to discuss the status of child labour existing in Turkey and its relationship with education as well as illustrating the results of a survey titled ‘Project for Gaining Working Children to the Educational System’ conducted within the scope of the ILO-IPEC and Ministry of Labour and Social Security with 150 children working in shoemaking, car-repair and apparel sectors in Izmir, with discussions about the child labour and education sections of findings.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Although the definition of child and its social status may differ from one nation to the other, universally created criteria are guiding in this topic. United Nation’s Convention on Children Rights accepts the criterion that all human beings must be considered until the age of 18; our country also approved this convention thereby accepting this definition based on age. (p.71)

Some Keywords:

apprentice training, child rights, child workers, ILO-IPEC

 

 

Gelegen, D.(2001); ‘‘Child Labor’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, April, 6:42-46


Gelegen, D.(2001); ‘‘Child Labor’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, April, 6:42-46.

Number of Works Cited: 1

Scope:

Leon Warshaw’s article (Precarious Employment and Child Labour, Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety. International Labour Organization. Geneva, 1998.) has been translated to our language. The concepts of child labour and child slavery are explained. Then, the subject has been deepened based on ILO data. The following section discussed in which jobs the children worked and the potential damages of such jobs. The final section focused on economic and social results of child labour.

An Excerpt from the Article:

There are many forms of employment where the workers are subjected to impoverishment, exploitation and maltreatment; and where their health and safety are in great risks. Despite efforts by regulations, international conventions and treaties and solutions offered by them, it seems such working conditions will continue as long as human poverty, repression, misaccommodation and nutritional conditions remain the same. Workers also do not have the chance to benefit from information, education, skill gaining, protective and treating health services required to get rid of the bad situation they are in. (p.6)

Some Keywords:

working conditions, apprentices, child workers, child slavery, child exploitation, social security, poverty

 

Geçer, H.; Çağlayan, Ç.(2004); ‘‘Frequency of Work-Related Accidents in Kocaeli Vocational Training Students’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, 20:27-33


Geçer, H.; Çağlayan, Ç.(2004); ‘‘Frequency of Work-Related Accidents in Kocaeli Vocational Training Students’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, 20:27-33.

Number of Works Cited: 16

Scope:

The study describes the socio-demographic properties of the students of Kocaeli Vocational Training Center (M.E.M.), explains their working conditions, and researched the frequency of work-related accidents and relation with factors causing such accidents. No samples are chosen for this cross-sectional study, and 703 (90,9%) out of the 773 students studying at Kocaeli Vocational Training Center were included in this study.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Work-related accidents experienced by children in their working lives leave traces that they will carry in their minds and on their bodies during their early ages. It is possible to prevent work-related accidents by improving working conditions and taking necessary measures. As a result of work-related accidents experienced by Kocaeli Vocational Training Center students, 11,6% of them loose less than three workdays, 3,9% of them loose less than eight workdays and more. (p.32)

Some Keywords:

working conditions, child workers, occupational accident, socio-demographic level

 

 

Fidan, F.; ‘‘A Socio-Psychological Look on the Issue of Working Children: The Case of Children Working at the Industrial Zone’’, Trakya University, Faculty of Political Sciences Magazine, Volume:4, Issue No.1, June 2004


Fidan, F.; ‘‘A Socio-Psychological Look on the Issue of Working Children: The Case of Children Working at the Industrial Zone’’, Trakya University, Faculty of Political Sciences Magazine, Volume:4, Issue No.1, June 2004.

Number of Works Cited: 14

Scope:

The study discusses child labour, why and where the children worked and how this problem can be solved. First of all, the phenomenon of child labour has been addressed and efforts are made to give the economic, social and cultural grounds of child labour. Then, findings from a survey made on 140 working children are explained in details.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Childhood is a short period of time in life in general. However, this period has very huge reflections with regards its effects on the entire life, and forms the basis of the adult period. It seems impossible for a child to satisfy from his / her future life if he / she can not fully experience this period in its entirety under the determining factors of social, physical and psychological properties. Working, which means entry much earlier than the required time to the responsibility and efficiency phases of future life expresses break from ordered and regular living process. Being in the field of activity belonging to mature persons, the child will reflect its traces in the future. (p.46)

Some Keywords:

child workers, socio-psychologic properties

Ege, B.G.(2001); ‘‘Who is the Working Child?’’, (In: Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara


Ege, B.G.(2001); ‘‘Who is the Working Child?’’, (In: Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara.

Number of Works Cited: 7

Scope:

It is clear that there will be countless benefits in familiarizing with working children who get into the working life in early ages while their peers are playing games, in order to be able to find solutions for the problems of working children. From this point, the basic objective of this presentation is to offer a perspective and seek the answers to the question ‘‘who is the working child?’’ and the effort to familiarize with the working child based on the findings of a field survey (Project for Gaining Working Children to Education, Izmir 2001) conducted in Izmir within the frame of the ILO-IPEC in a program conducted together with the Ministry of Labour and Social Security.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Number of hours that children are obliged to work in a day is an important indicator of the child labour issue. Inevitably children are spending most of their times at work and less of their times for learning and leisure activities. Those struggling to achieve schooling and working together are facing numerous handicaps due to the negative effects of working over a certain threshold on the learning skills of children. (p.63)

Some Keywords:

free time, working hours, apprentice training, child workers, ILO-IPEC

 

 

Dikbayır, G.; Dayıoğlu, M.; Bakır, A.; Ataöv, A.(2001); ‘Effects of Income on Child Employment’, (In: Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara, p.161-181


Dikbayır, G.; Dayıoğlu, M.; Bakır, A.; Ataöv, A.(2001); ‘Effects of Income on Child Employment’, (In: Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara, p.161-181.

Number of Works Cited: 14

Scope:

The study covers the children aged between 6 and 17. Based on child labour statistics of 1999, this study discusses whether or not there is correlation between poverty and working of children in income generating jobs in Turkey. As in many other studies, poverty is only covered with its income aspect. The study uses the unpublished data of child labour survey realized by questionnaire forms related to children between the ages 5 and 17 conducted by DIE in 1999 and inserted into the October household labour survey. According to this study, there are 16.088.108 children between the ages 6 and 17 in Turkey. About 10% of these children are working in income generating jobs.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Results obtained from this study based on the 1999 Child Labour Survey demonstrate that 10,17% of children between the ages 6 and 17 throughout Turkey are working. Separately considering rural and urban settlements, it is seen that 6% of children are working in urban areas while a very high percentage like 17% of children are working in rural areas. (p.178)

Some Keywords:

child workers, income level, household labour force survey, children working in rural areas, poverty

 

 

 

Demirbilek, S.; Demirbilek, T.(2001); ‘‘Importance of Apprentice Training for Working Children: A Study on Apprentices Studying at İzmir Apprentice Training Center’’, (In: Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara, p. 321-337


Demirbilek, S.; Demirbilek, T.(2001); ‘‘Importance of Apprentice Training for Working Children: A Study on Apprentices Studying at İzmir Apprentice Training Center’’, (In: Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara, p. 321-337.

Number of Works Cited: 19

Scope:

The article focuses on the importance of apprentice training for working children, and then the survey applied on apprentices studying in some profession branches related to industrial sector in İzmir Provincial Apprentice Training Center has been discussed and evaluated. Conducted between 2 and 13 April, the survey is based on in-depth conversations with administrators, instructors and students.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Despite the said negative conditions, apprentices have harmonious relations with their workmen. Apprentices are not complaining about their employers and master workmen. Only 19 apprentices reported that they were subject to maltreatment. Children are harmonious and obedient at home-workplace-school in parallel with the judgment of their families. The reason for this is that apprentices learn the job basically by their own skills and efforts and show attitudes in line with the working, ethical and culture in their workplaces based on the education and manners they received from their families. (p.331)

Some Keywords:

working conditions, aprentices, apprentice training, child workers

 

Çiner, C.U.(2002); ‘‘A Future Without Child Labour’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No. 63, July-August


Çiner, C.U.(2002); ‘‘A Future Without Child Labour’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No. 63, July-August.

Number of Works Cited: 1

Scope:

The issue of child labour in the world has been compiled in consideration of a working report of ILO. Size, causes and results of the issue are discussed.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Child labour has been described as a phenomenon that has many various forms. Based on available data, it has been concluded that 352 million children aged between 5 and 14 were in an activity with economic gains. From here, it is seen that 106 million children in the minimum working age are working in an acceptable job. Working conditions of remaining 246 million children need improvement. (p.16)

Some Keywords:

minimum age, working conditions, child workers

Baş, K.(2004); ‘‘Factors Determining Child Labor in Turkey: Personal and Family-Related Factors’’, Hacettepe University Facilty of Economic and Administrative Sciences Magazine, Volume:22, Issue No.1


Baş, K.(2004); ‘‘Factors Determining Child Labor in Turkey: Personal and Family-Related Factors’’, Hacettepe University Facilty of Economic and Administrative Sciences Magazine, Volume:22, Issue No.1.

Number of Works Cited:-

Scope:

This study has been conducted with the purpose of revealing the factors determining child labour in Turkey. The study particularly focused on the relationships between child labour and education and income levels of parents, and other household characteristics. Ampirical analysis has been made based on the data obtained from the child labour survey conducted by State Statistics Institute (DIE) in 1999. As a result of analyses, it has been found that age of child, education level of parents, number of children in the family, mother’s employment and the place of residence (rural or urban) are among factors determining child labour.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Some Keywords:

apprentice training, child workers, child labour survey, income level

 

Balcı, Y.G.; Eşiyok, B.(2002); ‘‘Violence against Children and Youth in the Age of 19 and Under in the Workplace’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No.60, January-February


Balcı, Y.G.; Eşiyok, B.(2002); ‘‘Violence against Children and Youth in the Age of 19 and Under in the Workplace’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No.60, January-February.

Number of Works Cited: 10

Scope:

The article probes into the results of 3 different studies. The first is the data results abroad, the second is the files of Forensics Department 2nd Expertise Commission and the third is the study on violence in the workplace conducted on female apprentices by Fişek Institute Working Children Science and Action Center Foundation.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Various studies conducted in different countries, organizations and institutions have revealed that violence in the workplace is a serious social health issue. However, these studies have also revealed that no sufficient registration and data flow systems were available in order to be able to create actions and strategies. Violence in the workplace has become one of the important topics of study and discussion in recent years. The rate of attack-caused injuries in workplaces is 72,9 per hundred thousand, 50 times more than fatal cases and rates of injuries vary by sexuality and type of industry. (p.21)

Some Keywords:

child workers, girl apprentices, violence

Altıntaş, B.(2005); ‘‘Child Labour: Causes, Problems and Policy Management’’, Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.58-64


Altıntaş, B.(2005); ‘‘Child Labour: Causes, Problems and Policy Management’’, Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.58-64.

Number of Works Cited:-

Scope:

The study examines the different dimensions of child labour and reviews the policy perspective on child labour and working children based on the dynamic of struggle against child labour. Reasons underlying child employment, working conditions of children in dangerous working relations, description of risk factors related to the physical and psycho-social balances of children in the working life and determination of its possible effects on children are the purposes of this study. The study also aims the creation of a policy and action plan for working children.

 

An Excerpt from the Article:

The issue of child labour is an issue that has to be taken into consideration not just because many children are working illegally but also because their works are mostly dependent on exploitation. Children are being employed for social, political, cultural and economic reasons. (p.59)

Some Keywords:

working conditions, child workers, reasons of child labour, child exploitation, occupational hazards

 

Globalization and Child Labour


Title of the Study: Globalization and Child Labour

Type of the Study: Specialization Thesis

Author of the Study: Savaş Yılmaz

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: Ankara, 2001 (TODAİE Public Administration Programme)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 204

Purpose: To examine the globalization connections of working children, study why the children are working in Turkey, which risks they are facing and inquire about studies made in this subject in Turkey, discuss whether or not there are any connections between the results of inquiries and the nature of relevant national and international regulations, to bring proposals about the subject.

Content: Part one discusses national and international regulations under the title of concepts and definitions; and definitions of concepts like child, working child and apprentice are made. Part two gives the reasons of child labour in the world and in Turkey, forms of usage of child labour and its distribution by sector. Part three discusses the New World Order and the effects of globalization on labour and labour force market under the title of ‘‘Change in the World’’, and the status of their effects in child labor in the world Part four discusses child labour in the case of Turkey. This part examines where Turkey is in globalization, effects of Customs Union on child labor, status of child labour, distribution by sectors, objective conditions, properties of family structure and which risks and pressures they faced. Part five discusses national and international regulations made on the topic.

Method: Literature scanning is used.

Excerpt: Although school services are given free of charge by the government, schooled child has an economic burden on the family. Direct cost of education on the family is the expenses made for books, notebooks, and other school items, school uniform, and transportation costs if the school is remote from house and lunch expenses. (s.51)

Some keywords: child workers, globalisation, international regulation

 

Child Employment in Labour Code


Title of the Study: Child Employment in Labour Code

Type of the Study: Master Thesis

Author of the Study: Emine Berrin Turan

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: İstanbul, 2004 (Marmara University Institute of Social Sciences Department of Law)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 162

Purpose: Study of the legal dimension of child employment.

Content: Part one discusses the regulations forming the legal basis of child labour. Part two gives a description of child and child labour concept is explained and basic concepts on this subject are given by revealing the difference of this concept from apprentice and trainee.

Method: Literature scanning method is used.

Excerpt: Another difference between apprentice and child worker is that apprenticeship contract is for the time period until 19 years of age, thereafter the apprenticeship contract between the parties will terminate as a rule but as an exception the previous apprenticeship contract with an apprentice who has terminated the age of 18 before its contract has expired will survive the termination of contract. (p.95)

Some keywords: apprenticeship, child workers, national regulation

 

 

Comparison of Mothers with and Without Working Children with Regard to Child Labour and Attitudes About Education


Title of the Study: Comparison of Mothers with and Without Working Children with Regard to Child Labour and Attitudes About Education

Type of the Study: Master Thesis

Author of the Study: Senem Özdemir

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: Ankara, 2002 (Ankara University Institute of Social Sciences Department of Psychology)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 82

Purpose: Comparison of mothers with and without working children with

Regard to child labour and attitudes about education and researching whether or not such attitudes are differing based on causing their children to work or not.

Content: First part discusses general concepts about child labour. Second part discusses the method of study. Third part discuses the findings and fourth part is for discussion purposes.

Method: The study sample is the mothers with different education and socio-economic levels domiciled in Yalova. The study consisted of 150 mothers (75 with working children and 75 without working children). Survey on children used by Çiğdem Kağıtçıbaşı in its ‘‘Value of Child Survey’’ and attitude scale prepared by researcher about child labour and education as means of data collection. Age and education status demographic information are applied by adding to other data collection tools utilized.

Excerpt: That most of the children with working children are illiterate should require that they do not have high levels of awareness. That they are illiterate and that they do not know even Turkish minimizes their chances of self-development. (p.50)

Some keywords: family, apprentice training, value of child, child workers

 

 

 

 

Advice Group Third Meeting


Title of the Study: Advice Group Third Meeting

Tyoe of the Study: Meeting Report (Working Childern Department Capacity Building Project / Within ILO-IPEC Context)

Author of the Study: Ministry of Labour and Social Security Department of Working Children

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: April 1998, Ankara

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 55

Purpose: To cite the works of third meeting of the advice group.

 

Content: People attend to this meeting from organisations, associations, foundations, labour unions, NGO’s, universities and government agencies. ILO-IPEC National Coordinator Şule Çağlar’s presentation outlined the ILO-IPEC strategies and sustainability of the programs. The head of Working Children Department Filiz Anık, discussed the reasons of child labour, micro-macro policies, implementation methodologies and related associations and institutions. And then the three partite workshops are presented.

Method: Oral and written presentations are quoted.

Excerpt: Child labour is a global concept. It is as old as the human history. B.C. 2100 in the Hammurabi Laws, the craftsmen should had to teach their occupations to the apprentices properly. It is also understood from the researches that Greeks, Romans, Egyptians were passing their arts and vocations from generation to generation under the laws legislated for this specific purpose. (p.33)

Some Keywords: child workers, public institutions, trade unions, NGOs

 

Varol, N.(1999); “Behaviours Are The Determinants of Adult’s Duties to Children’’ , İşveren Magazine, Volume :37, Issue No. 7, April, Ankara


Varol, N.(1999); “Behaviours Are The Determinants of Adult’s Duties to Children’’ , İşveren Magazine, Volume :37, Issue No. 7, April, Ankara.

Number of Works Cited: 6

Scope:

The article includes the results of the study started on July 1998 to find out the working conditions of children and supplying health services within the TİSK/ILO-IPEC programme. Only with sensitive approaches sound soltions can be produced. Guidance and councelling services should be given with the hands of Child Bureaus in the Workplace Common Health Units.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The health examination, audio tests, respiration function tests and coloured eye examinations done by Fişek Institute Working Children Science And Action Foundation on 175 children it is found that %91,4 of children had deviations from good health states, and the most common health problem diagnosed was the eardrom disorders because of middle ear illnesses, 20 children had respiratory problems, 12 children have difficulties in hearing because of work related factors, 7 children had colour blindness, 4 children had inflamation, 3 children had heart problems, 2 children had lowblood pressure. (p.23)

Some Key Words:

child bureaus, child workers, child health, occupational accident, occupational disease

 

Karataş, K.(1993); “Child Labour Problem: Reasons, Results And Solution Suggestions”, Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Hizmetler Yüksekokulu Magazine, Volume: 11, Issue No. 1-2-3, p. 85-102


Karataş, K.(1993); “Child Labour Problem: Reasons, Results And Solution Suggestions”, Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Hizmetler Yüksekokulu Magazine, Volume: 11, Issue No. 1-2-3, p. 85-102.

Number of Works Cited: 12

Scope:

The study which gives the use of child labour both in the world and in our country with its history also included the national and international legislations and regulations. In the preceding parts the reasons of child labour use and the sectors where child labour is intense and the effect of existing conditions on children are evaluated. The last part where suggestions to solve the problem are listed, the importance of creating a conscious society and a sensitive public opinion to render social change is emphasised. It is also stated that the necessity of active participation of the society is made clear.

An Excerpt from the Article:

As children who are in growing up period have low resistance capacity and weak muscles, they easily get tired. Therefore, they are more proun to occupational diseases and accidents. There are not proper statistics on occupational accidents especially in the developing countries. But the statistics in some developed countries reveal that the ratio of children facing these accidents are quite high. (p.96)

Somke Key Words:

working conditions, child labour, child workers, child health, occupational accident, occupational disease, social change

 

Karabulut, Ö.(1998); “The Problems Of Working Children And Their Ways Of Solution”, Third National Occupational Health Congress, TTB Central Council, October, Ankara, p. 354-357

Karabulut, Ö.(1998); “The Problems Of Working Children And Their Ways Of Solution”, Third National Occupational Health Congress, TTB Central Council, October, Ankara, p. 354-357.

 

Number of Works Cited:

 

Scope:

The study defines the entrance of children into labour markets as a social problem, and finds the efforts of trying to acquire cheaper labour for the purpose of better competition very dangerous. Poverty, the low level of success in education system and the fact that it does not provide better future solutions creates an environment where child labour demand increases. The potential that children have in terms of gaining skills which was unutilised because of use of child labour which is often considered as results of exploitation and neglegence dangers the efforts of development of our country with highly skilled labour force. Compulsory 8 year education and the ratification of minimum age convention is not enough. The educational life should be more attractive and all the working children should be able to benefit from a broad protection. The presentation ended with Türk-İş’s contributions to fight against child labour.

 

An Excerpt from the Article:

Exploitation of children in the form of child labour is seen as the most spread form of child abuse. The employment of children whom are the source of our future in hard and dangerous conditions in their development and education period makes them become the victim of the implementation of socio- economic policies, all kinds of neglegence and poor control. (p.355)

 

Some Key Words:

minimum age, child workers, child abuse, TÜRK-İŞ

 

Fişek, A.G.; “Medico-Social Problems Of The Child Workers Research”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, May, Issue No. 8, p. 27-32


Fişek, A.G.; “Medico-Social Problems Of The Child Workers Research”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, May, Issue No. 8, p. 27-32.

Number of Works Cited: 29

Scope:

The article which takes the situation where there is no alternative as the main reason of full time child labour in the developing countries also gives findings on working children’s profiles and health conditions of child workers employed in the small scale enterprises. In the result part, social policies towards child workers should be revised and new models should be applied. With the inclusion of children, a medico-social organisation which surrounds apprentice education centers and work places are recommended to take place.

 

An Excerpt from the Article:

When children’s expectations about the future is considered, results worth thinking of and different in terms of educational status, gender and backgrounds are revealed. Girls with the effect of traditional structure are planning to withdraw from the working life. The girls who are under the effect of this thought consists of %71,8 of the girls that are the sample population of this survey. This really effects their future lives very closely. Because they do not want to become a skilled worker. But observations shows that they are forced to return back to the active labour markets because of economic difficulties without any skills. (p.29)

Some Key Words:

diet, apprentice training, child workers, child health, occupational safety and health, medico-social problems

 

 

Aygün, T.(1998); “The Concept of Childhood and Children In Our Era”, Third National Occupational Health Congress, TTB Central Council, October, Ankara, p. 350-354


Aygün, T.(1998); “The Concept of Childhood and Children In Our Era”, Third National Occupational Health Congress, TTB Central Council, October, Ankara, p. 350-354.

Number of Works Cited: 6

Scope:

This presentation was in the Health Of Working Children section of the congress. The concept of being a child has changed dramatically in our era and it lost its meaning. The change in the economic environment has also changed the status of the children. The linkages in between the special category of children and the new ways of child labour are discussed as well.

 

An Excerpt from the Article:

The place of working childen in the society has a further meaning than just minimising costs and maximising profits. Apart from being a cheap labour force, they represent the lowest step in the social order and own a place that nobody desires and called as ‘The Doomsed’, in a society where authority is tried to be legalised. Worst of all the amount of street children that are excluded from the society rises everyday and this creates new social fractions and hierarchy. (p.353)

Some Key Words:

apprentice training, child development, child workers, cheap labour

Aygün, R.; Akdur, R.(1978); “Occupational Conditions of The Small Scale Enterprises in Siteler Ankara and Determination of Some Properties of the Workers”, First National Occupational Health Congress, 19-21 October, İstanbul, p. 563-580


Aygün, R.; Akdur, R.(1978); “Occupational Conditions of The Small Scale Enterprises in Siteler Ankara and Determination of Some Properties of the Workers”, First National Occupational Health Congress, 19-21 October, İstanbul, p. 563-580.

Number of Works Cited: 2

Scope:

This survey is made in 100 workplaces to contribute to the studies that are conducted by Ankara Physician’s Chamber about the determination of occupational health conditions and social problems of the workers. It is observed that minimising costs in labour intensive works supports child labour and cheap labour force and also it shows that labour is exploited where occupational health and safety standards are low and where proper official inspections are not made properly. This research is an important guide to the forthcoming studies.

An Excerpt from the Article:

835 (%62,5)workers which attend the survey are under 18 years of age. This data proofs our observations. Big enterprises making the same goods have %9 of workers under the age of 18. (p.564)

Some Key Words:

apprentice training, child development, child workers, occupational safety and health, cheap labour

Ministry of labour and Social Security(1997), “Working Children News Bulletin”, Issue No.3, Ankara


Ministry of labour and Social Security(1997), “Working Children News Bulletin”, Issue No.3, Ankara.

Number Of Works Cited: 6

Scope:

Erhan Batur gives an extract of the European Council’s Fight Against Child Labour Advice

and also discusses the parliament’s decision taken on the third term general council in 1997. Ali Saraç’s article is on working environment and child labour which presents childhood, the working conditions of children and the negative effects of the physical, menthal and ergonomic factors evident in the atmosphere. It is stated that the effects of these conditions barriers the ethical, menthal and physical growth of children. The importance of keeping away children from work is also discussed whereby they can attend schools and get the education essential for them selves to have bright futures.

Some Key Words:

working conditions, child workers, ILO-IPEC, international regulation