Time Bound Policy and Programme Framework for the Prevention of Child Labor


Title of the Study: Time Bound Policy and Programme Framework for the Prevention of Child Labor

Type of the Study: Book describing the Time-Bound Policy and Programme Framework within the scope of the ILO-IPEC created by the Ministry of Labor and Social Security.

Author of the Study: Ministry of Labor and Social Security

 

Presentation,,

Year/Place of Publication: 2006, Ankara

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 63

Purpose: Promotion and Description of Time-Bound Policy and Programme Framework for the Prevention of Child Labor.

 

Content: A National Policy and Programme has been created to implement time-bound programmes within the scope of ILO-IPEC programme. Accordingly, it has been described in which sectors time-bound programme will be implemented from the year 2004 onwards.

Method: Prepared in the form of a promotion book in brief and short form and describes the National Policy and Programme created within the frame of the Time Bound Programme and way to be followed to reach the targets.

Excerpt: Considering Social and Economic situation analyses, child labor surveys mad in 1994 and 1999, feedback from stakeholders and data obtained from studies aimed at elimination of child labor in Turkey, it is seen that there is a general agreement with regards the basic reasons of child labor.

Some keywords: apprentices, child labour survey, time bound programme

 

 

The CLM (Child Labour Monitoring) in İzmir


Title of the Study: The CLM (Child Labour Monitoring) in İzmir.

Type of the Study: Research – Evaluation Report (The work has been conducted within the scope of the ILO-IPEC Programme.)

Author of the Study: Dr. Dilek Cindoğlu

 

Presentation,,

Year/Place of Publication: 2003, Ankara

Language of the Study: English

Number of Pages: 39

Purpose: Description of the method used within the frame of the programme for the elimination of child labour in some selected sectors in Izmir during the years 2000-2003.

 

Content: Targets, method and results of the programme conducted in Izmir within the frame of the ILO-IPEC programme have been revealed. In this framework, 5890 children under the age of 15 working in car repair works, textile sector and shoe production sector are removed from working life and enrolled with relevant schools to make sure they get the necessary education.

Method: Prepared as a report, this publication discusses the method followed within the frame of the programme to eliminate child labour in relevant sectors between the years 2000-2003 in Izmir. Questions asked in questionnaires and method used is given at the end of the report.

Excerpt: The formation of this type of collaborative working group on child labour enhanced the level of institutional support available and ensured that referrals were well-coordinated at an operational level. (p.15)

Some keywords: working children, apprentice training, child labour survey

 

Taştı, E.(2001); ‘‘Trends Revealed by DIE Child LaboUr Surveys’’, (In: Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara, p.67-99


Taştı, E.(2001); ‘‘Trends Revealed by DIE Child LaboUr Surveys’’, (In: Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara, p.67-99.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

First part of the article gives an overview of population and workforce in Turkey. Second part makes general explanations about child labour surveys and touches the definitions and concepts used in the survey. Third part focuses on subjects like trends revealed by child labour surveys, living conditions of children, educational status of child, children working in economical jobs, children working in domestic works, reasons underlying child labour, working conditions and their expectations from the future.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The article makes an explanation about the child labour surveys conducted by DIE and trends revealed by these surveys are put forth comparatively. Because there are differences in scope between the October 1994 Child Labour Survey and October 1999 Child Labour Survey, comparisons are made on existing data for age groups 6-14 and 6-17. (p.71)

Some Keywords:

working conditions, child labour, reasons of child labour, child labour survey

 

 

 

 

Ocakçı, A.(2001); ‘‘Status of Working Children in Turkey’’, Hacettepe University Magazine, Volume:8, Issue No.1, Ankara, January-June, pp.120-132


Ocakçı, A.(2001); ‘‘Status of Working Children in Turkey’’, Hacettepe University Magazine, Volume:8, Issue No.1, Ankara, January-June, pp.120-132.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

Child labour has been studied using data from DIE Child Labour Survey of 1994 and 1999.

An Excerpt from the Article:

As a result, children are working under many working conditions for numerous reasons. However, child labour has three aspects that should be taken into consideration. First is that an important and high number of children are starting work at a very early age. The second is many children are forced to work in an employment relationship that is open to exploitation and misuse (such as those serving at houses and under debt dependency). Lastly, it is known that yet many other children are working for extended hours, are rarely benefiting from sufficient nutrition, health services and educational facilities and are mostly receiving very low wages. (p.9)

Some Keywords:

child workers, child labour survey, child abuse, child exploitation

 

 

 

Gürçay, C.; Kumaş, H.(2001); ‘‘Profile of Employed Children in the World and in Turkey’’, (In: Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara, 2001


Gürçay, C.; Kumaş, H.(2001); ‘‘Profile of Employed Children in the World and in Turkey’’, (In: Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara, 2001.

 

Number of Works Cited: 31

Scope:

The study creates a profile aimed at working children after giving information about the quality and quantity of working children in the world and in Turkey. After the Introductory section, the study discusses children employed on contract. The reasons for child employment have been argued and a panoramic look has been put on children employed in the world. Then the focus is turned to the children employed in Turkey and to their ages and job sectors. The study employs the child labour survey data of DIE for the years 1994 and 1999.

An Excerpt from the Article:

One of the points of the problem is that the rules aimed at the working life in the international dimension have been created in a manner encompassing all nations. Difference of development levels and internal dynamics of nations make arrangements considering local conditions necessary. And this puts into the agenda the working life practices much lower than international arrangements and light and heavy works classification and efforts to address the issue in the legal dimension.

Some Keywords:

minimum age, working children, child labour survey, international regulation

Güneş, T.(2001); ‘‘Working Children’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, April, 6:6-8


Güneş, T.(2001); ‘‘Working Children’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, April, 6:6-8.

Number of Works Cited: 2

Scope:

Child labour, causes and its status in Turkey are discussed using the data obtained from DIE’s 1994 and 1999 Child Labour Survey.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Children all over the world are generally employed in sectors like leather, brick production, gold mining, textile, carpet weaving, fishery, match production; while they are also used in dangerous jobs like prostitution, porn cassette production, drugs production etc. In its 87th General Conference in 1999, ILO has described child labour containing these conditions as unacceptable and has adopted the “Immediate Action Plan Relating to the Prohibition and Elimination of Worst Forms of Child Labour” No 182. It is estimated that the number of children working under these forms is about 60-70 millions. (p.6)

Some Keywords:

child labour, child labour survey, ILO, international regulation

 

Dayıoğlu, M.(2005); ‘‘General Trends in Working Lives of Working Children’’, Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.45-50


Dayıoğlu, M.(2005); ‘‘General Trends in Working Lives of Working Children’’, Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.45-50.

Number of Works Cited: 3

Scope:

An article written based on a survey by DIE made in 1994 and 1999 and the author’s work titled ‘‘Gender Education and Child Labour in Turkey’’. Statistics are given and comparisons are made about working children. The subject has also been addressed from a gender point of view and important information is given about the ratios of male-female employment. Following sections discussed improvements on a sector basis, with the dimensions of the subject in the informal sector.

An Excerpt from the Article:

It is impossible to say that same level of improvement has occurred for children over the age of compulsory education. Although they have less presence in the working life, an important percentage of children between the ages 15 and 17 still continue working. (p.50)

Some Keywords:

gender discrimination, working children, child labour survey, informal sector

 

Baş, K.(2004); ‘‘Factors Determining Child Labor in Turkey: Personal and Family-Related Factors’’, Hacettepe University Facilty of Economic and Administrative Sciences Magazine, Volume:22, Issue No.1


Baş, K.(2004); ‘‘Factors Determining Child Labor in Turkey: Personal and Family-Related Factors’’, Hacettepe University Facilty of Economic and Administrative Sciences Magazine, Volume:22, Issue No.1.

Number of Works Cited:-

Scope:

This study has been conducted with the purpose of revealing the factors determining child labour in Turkey. The study particularly focused on the relationships between child labour and education and income levels of parents, and other household characteristics. Ampirical analysis has been made based on the data obtained from the child labour survey conducted by State Statistics Institute (DIE) in 1999. As a result of analyses, it has been found that age of child, education level of parents, number of children in the family, mother’s employment and the place of residence (rural or urban) are among factors determining child labour.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Some Keywords:

apprentice training, child workers, child labour survey, income level

 

Balcı, Y.G.(2002); ‘‘A Different Dimension in Child Exploitation: Sexual Discrimination in Working Children’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No.61, March-April


Balcı, Y.G.(2002); ‘‘A Different Dimension in Child Exploitation: Sexual Discrimination in Working Children’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No.61, March-April.

Number of Works Cited: 14

Scope:

Child labor has been discussed from the sexuality point of view using the Child Labour Survey made by State Statistics Institute (DIE) in 1999. Using available official data, participation percentages of male and female children to the working life have been discussed, together with how these percentages changed with the progress of age.

An Excerpt from the Article:

As a result, upon examination of the 1999 Child Labour Survey and in the light of these findings, it is clearly seen that sexuality is a source of exploitation in addition to child labour. Effects of this exploitation take place in the long term. That female children work in selected jobs without the purpose of learning a profession and removing themselves from professional life in order to become a good wife and mother for cultural and socio-economic reasons in accordance with the role determined by the society and contributing the family and her own dowry cause them to remain as unqualified labour. (p.19)

Some Keywords:

family, gender discrimination, working children, child labour survey, child abuse, economic contribution, socio-economic level

 

Child Labour in Leather Sector in the World and Turkey Scale


Title of the Study: Child Labour in Leather Sector in the World and Turkey Scale

Type of the Study: Phd. Thesis

Author of the Study: Ahmet Kemerli

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: İstanbul, 2001 (İstanbul University Institute of Social Sciences Department of Labour Economics and Industrial Relations)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 167

Purpose: Discussion of child labour with regard to child development and analytical examination of factors determining labour. Examination of the current situation of child labour in the world by sectors on country basis

 

Content: The study has four parts. Titled, Child Development and Child Law, the first part focuses on the concept of child. Child labour and factors determining child labour are discussed in the second part. Third part titled Child Labour in the World gives an overview of child labour. Fourth part titled Child Labour in Turkish Leather Sector and Field Study focuses on the structural elements of child labour.

Method: Literature scanning and field survey methods are used. Excerpts are made from DIE surveys conducted in 1994 aimed at children.

Excerpt: Many children work and study at the same time. This is because school hours and number of school days in developing countries is very low. For example, within the frame of IPEC programme, in a study made in shoemaking sector in Brazil it has been found that most of the children attend school and work about 8 hours a day. (p.68)

Some keywords: child labour, child development, reasons of child labour, child labour survey, ILO-IPEC, national regulation

 

 

 

 

 

Çolak, Ö.F.(1999); “Child Labour and Education”, İşveren Magazine, Cilt 37, Issue No. 7, April, Ankara


Çolak, Ö.F.(1999); “Child Labour and Education”, İşveren Magazine, Cilt 37, Issue No. 7, April, Ankara.

Number of Works Cited: 4

Scope:

The compulsory and non-compulsory reasons why children work are listed and also the state of child labour in the country is evaluated under the guidance of DIE’s(National Statistical Institute) Child Labour Survey. It was underlined that the way to keep children out of work depends on the amount of money spend on education from the budget.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Taking into account that %65 of people employed between the ages 12-24 have primary school, 11% have secondary school and %16 percent have lycee diplomas, the 8 year compulsory education system should be implemented more effectively. Enhancement of the production system where it is difficult to create a job for the low human capital worker, will fasten the positive transformation. (p.13)

Some Key Words:

working children, apprentice training, reasons of child labour, child labour survey

Bayçın, S.; Kozcu A, Ş.; Öncü, S.; Özgüle, A.; Şahbaz, H.; Şahbaz, T. (1998); “The 5th Year Primary School Students’ School Attendence and Work Behaviour and Their Future Occupatinal Expectations That Live in İzmir-Karşıyaka Ghetto Area”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, November-December, No. 41, p. 17-19


Bayçın, S.; Kozcu A, Ş.; Öncü, S.; Özgüle, A.; Şahbaz, H.; Şahbaz, T. (1998); “The 5th Year Primary School Students’ School Attendence and Work Behaviour and Their Future Occupatinal Expectations That Live in İzmir-Karşıyaka Ghetto Area”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, November-December, No. 41, p. 17-19.

Number of Works Cited: 6

Scope:

The survey is done before İzmir Working Children Group’s education to the parents of the 5th grade primary school children about the Apprenticeship Training Centers. First the primary schools that children attend with highest possibilty of not continuing secondary education in Karşıyaka district ghetto area are determined and the factors effecting are outlined. The 1634 children studying in the 5th grade of Gümüşpala, Cumhuriyet, Örnekköy, Yamanlar and Küçük Yamanlar area primary schools are the population of this research. The attitudes of these children towards working while they attend school and their intention of attending secondary schools are surveyed where the population’s %46,6 are girls and %53,4 are boys. The findings are compared with DIE’s (State Statistical Institute) Household Labour Force Survey and A.G.Fişek’s ‘Medico-Social Problems of The Working Children’ research.

An Excerpt from the Aerticle:

Although it is illegal to employ anyone under the age of 11, %21,7 of the childen are found to be part-time workers while attending primary school. Economic concers outlawed legal issues. It is expected that these children are highly likely to start working after completing primary school. %29,8 said they will not be attending secondary school or they said they are not sure yet. Although when we look at what they want to become in the future, the anwers show that university education is needed for these jobs. (p.19)

Some Key Words:

apprentices, apprentice training, child labour survey, child health