Success Stories from Street to Hope Model Studies Aimed at the Solution of the Issue of Children Working in the Streets: Ankara, Adapazarı, Diyarbakır, Gölcük, Yalova, Support Centers for Children Working in the Streets


Title of the Study: Success Stories from Street to Hope

Model Studies Aimed at the Solution of the Issue of Children Working in the Streets: Ankara, Adapazarı, Diyarbakır, Gölcük, Yalova, Support Centers for Children Working in the Streets

Type of the Study: Research – Evaluation Report (The study has been conducted within the scope of the ILO-IPEC Programme.)

Authors of the Study: Ayşe Gündüz Hoşgör

Ertan Karabıyık Özgür Çetinkaya

Hasan Cemal Sargın

 

Presentation,,

Year/Place of Publication: International Work Office 2005, Ankara

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 86

Purpose: To demonstrate the sample practices in the events conducted in the “center for children working in the streets” in 5 cities and guide the initiatives about children working in the streets in Turkey within the frame of the Programme.

 

Content: The Introduction section explains the purpose, methodology and stages of the study. The second part touches the good practices regarding studies conducted in 5 cities. Part three gives the conclusion, general evaluation and suggestions.

Method: The study has been carried out in 3 stages. The first stage examines IPEC documentation about 5 centers. Second stage examines, in consultation with the currently IPEC partner organizations, the existing experiences thru the above-explained good practice method. At this stage, 5 centers were visited and meetings and focus group interviews were made with representatives from different sectors. At the third stage, a draft report of good practices has been prepared and this draft report was sent to relevant persons for their opinions.

Excerpt: Now my paint chest is something in the past. I am doin good paintings. An excerpt from a poem written by a student studying at Vali Nafiz Kayalı Elementary Regional Boarding School .(p.21)

Some keywords: child labour, ILO-IPEC, children working on the streets

 

For Handkerchief, Savory Rolls, Painting, Garbage,…….: Working in the Streets of Ankara


Title of the Study: For Handkerchief, Savory Rolls, Painting, Garbage,…….: Working in the Streets of Ankara

Type of the Study: Book

Author of the Study: Altıntaş, Betül

 

Presentation,,

Year/Place of Publication: İstanbul, 2003 (İstanbul University Institute of Social Sciences Department of Business Economy and Industrial Relations)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 256

Purpose: Explain the issue of children working in the streets and child labour based on observations made in Ankara.

Content: The book contains evaluations about the situation of children working in the streets throughout the world, relevant forms of approach, and legal and organizations regulations in Turkey.

Method: Literature scanning and field study methods were used.

Excerpt: People don’t understand us. Some think we are beggars. Them contemplate us, swear at us, we can’t say anything, and we go leave there.” These words belong to Ayşe aged 11 and Adnan aged 14. Ayşe and Adnan are not thieves and beggars. Ayşe sells adhesive bandage in the streets of Ankara, and Adnan paints shoes. They contribute to family income this way. Monies brought by “Ayşe”s and “Adnan”s are even forming the main income item of many families.

Some keywords: child labour, child rights, children working on the streets, national regulation

 

 

Taştı, E.(2001); ‘‘Trends Revealed by DIE Child LaboUr Surveys’’, (In: Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara, p.67-99


Taştı, E.(2001); ‘‘Trends Revealed by DIE Child LaboUr Surveys’’, (In: Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara, p.67-99.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

First part of the article gives an overview of population and workforce in Turkey. Second part makes general explanations about child labour surveys and touches the definitions and concepts used in the survey. Third part focuses on subjects like trends revealed by child labour surveys, living conditions of children, educational status of child, children working in economical jobs, children working in domestic works, reasons underlying child labour, working conditions and their expectations from the future.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The article makes an explanation about the child labour surveys conducted by DIE and trends revealed by these surveys are put forth comparatively. Because there are differences in scope between the October 1994 Child Labour Survey and October 1999 Child Labour Survey, comparisons are made on existing data for age groups 6-14 and 6-17. (p.71)

Some Keywords:

working conditions, child labour, reasons of child labour, child labour survey

 

 

 

 

Şişman, Y.(2003); ‘‘Child and Youth Labour in Turkey with Regards Social Policies’’, Kamu İş: İş Hukuku ve İktisat Magazine, C. VII, Issue No.2


Şişman, Y.(2003); ‘‘Child and Youth Labour in Turkey with Regards Social Policies’’, Kamu İş: İş Hukuku ve İktisat Magazine, C. VII, Issue No.2.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

Our purpose in this study is not to determine the dimension and attributes of the problem but at the same time to make even a small contribution to the solution of the problem by revealing the targets. Forms, means and limited nature of policies aimed at protecting child and youth labour. This study basically discusses child and youth labour in the urban area. Because there are evidences proving that there is visible increase in child and youth labour particularly in the urban area in last 20-30 years. In addition, children and youth working in the urban areas are most probably more unjustly treated than those working in the rural parts; therefore they deserved the special interest of academicians with regards policy production. However, most of what has been said in this article is fully valid for the agricultural sector as well.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Low economical development level in our country and more importantly unfair distribution of income results in the issue of poverty. Besides a population increase of 18,3%, which may be considered quick, increases the spare of children in the overall population. However, because social services are not increased in parallel with the increase in the number of children and youth on grounds of insufficient budget, participations in the work force in early ages are inevitable. Continuation of migration from rural parts to urban parts and inability to develop employment opportunities in cities, and even the shrinkage in employment due to crises in recent years and unemployment raises urban poverty to the top of our country’s social issues and it is mostly the children who take over this responsibility.

Some Keywords:

child labour, young labour force, city problems, children working in rural areas, social politics, socio-economic level, poverty

 

 

Özdemir, A.M.; Özdemir, Y.G.(2005); ‘‘Is a World Without Child Labor Possible?’’, Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.71-76


Özdemir, A.M.; Özdemir, Y.G.(2005); ‘‘Is a World Without Child Labor Possible?’’, Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.71-76.

Number of Works Cited: 10

Scope:

First part of the study explains child labour in central capitalist countries within the international division of labour. The second part discusses child labor in surrounding capitalist countries. Then, arguments aimed at the regulation of child labour in surrounding capitalist countries are studied. This section focuses on the tools as to “how” child labour will be regulated, then the “reasons” underlying the discussion of regulation of child labour in global capitalism. Lastly, basic claims of parties to this discussion are given.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Some may think that there will not be contrary opinions about the classification and elimination of child labour; but there are many supporters as well as opponents of labour standards in contracts ensuring free circulation of capital–which contains the prohibition of child labour. Therefore, in this study we aim to open to discussion the global labour standards and reactions given to these standards from a certain perspective. (p.72)

Some Keywords:

child labour, globalisation

 

 

Lordoğlu, K.(2002); ‘‘No Time to Play, But Streets are Ours’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine Issue No.60, January-February


Lordoğlu, K.(2002); ‘‘No Time to Play, But Streets are Ours’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine Issue No.60, January-February.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The first section described the working areas of children using the data from DIE’s Child Labour Survey of 1994 and 1999. Then, explanations are made about why the children are working, and the reasons they get into the working life in small ages with examples from different geographical regions. Outcomes of children working and the approach of national regulations are probed into in the final section.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Only to list down some of the problems that are encountered by children who have no time to play and are after work will render this article impossible to read. Both in Turkey and in all other countries where children are employed, different programs exist proposed against problems in child labour. International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labor(IPEC) of International Labor Organization is one of them. The Immediate Action Plan and Convention No. 182 on Eliminating Worst Forms of Child Labour and No.138 on the Minimum Age signed by Turkey aimed to fully prohibit child labor, which is not in harmony with the existing conditions. (p.11)

Some Keywords:

child labour, ILO-IPEC, national regulation, international regulation

 

Güneş, T.(2001); ‘‘Working Children’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, April, 6:6-8


Güneş, T.(2001); ‘‘Working Children’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, April, 6:6-8.

Number of Works Cited: 2

Scope:

Child labour, causes and its status in Turkey are discussed using the data obtained from DIE’s 1994 and 1999 Child Labour Survey.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Children all over the world are generally employed in sectors like leather, brick production, gold mining, textile, carpet weaving, fishery, match production; while they are also used in dangerous jobs like prostitution, porn cassette production, drugs production etc. In its 87th General Conference in 1999, ILO has described child labour containing these conditions as unacceptable and has adopted the “Immediate Action Plan Relating to the Prohibition and Elimination of Worst Forms of Child Labour” No 182. It is estimated that the number of children working under these forms is about 60-70 millions. (p.6)

Some Keywords:

child labour, child labour survey, ILO, international regulation

 

Erkin, C., Rende S.(2005); ‘‘Child Labor: Use As Much As You Want, It is Cheap Here’’, Birikim Magazine, Issue No.192, Istanbul, April


Erkin, C., Rende S.(2005); ‘‘Child Labor: Use As Much As You Want, It is Cheap Here’’, Birikim Magazine, Issue No.192, Istanbul, April.

Number of Works Cited: 33

Scope:

The study first discusses what child labour is and the situation of child labour in the world. Then, the basic causes of child labour are given. In addition, probing has been made into whether or not poverty is the only factor and then examples are given to prove that prohibitions are not sufficient to end child labour. The following section gives information about domestic production and female child labour.

An Excerpt from the Article:

So, why do the employers prefer children where adults are unable to find employment? An explanation to the effect that ‘‘small and skillful’’ fingers are more productive in weaving carpets, and collecting jasmines also set forth for female labour has been put behind upon understanding that the productiveness of children and adults were not different than each other in this field. More reasonable cause is that children are working with lower wages. Responses received when the question is directed to the employers emphasize other reasons of their preference of child labour. (p.41)

Some Keywords:

child labour, girl child labour, poverty

 

Fişek, O.; Balcı, Y.; Fişek, A.G.(2001); ‘‘Inequality of Gender Roles as a Source of Child Exploitation and Negligence’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No. 59, November-December


Fişek, O.; Balcı, Y.; Fişek, A.G.(2001); ‘‘Inequality of Gender Roles as a Source of Child Exploitation and Negligence’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No. 59, November-December.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

Reasons underlying child negligence and exploitation are studied in consideration of social gender inequalities. Literacy rates, ratio of men-women at workplaces, sector ratio of men-women, ratio of working reasons of female-male children are compared and studied in detail.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Again, studies demonstrate that both families and girls in working life tend to get away from working life when they are married. Leaving work after marriage is something specific to girls. This attitude is not seen in men. While the number of women working until the age 25 is twice that of working men, this ratio is reversed after the age of 25. (p.4)

Some Keywords:

apprentice training, child labour, child abuse

 

Çelik, A.(2005); ‘‘Child Labor from Past to Present’’, Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.51-57


Çelik, A.(2005); ‘‘Child Labor from Past to Present’’, Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.51-57.

Number of Works Cited: 23

Scope:

The introductory section describes the term child labour, revealing the reasons underlying. Following section discusses the struggle against child labour in its historical perspective including Charles Dickens. The profile of child labour has been drawn based on the data of International Labor Organization (ILO). Subsequent sections describe the issue of child labour in Turkey, discussing solutions in consideration of EU norms.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Elimination of child labour also took an important place among the demands of the period’s social opposition movements. The Chartist movement, which was a general vote movement initially and then transformed into a social content later included the prohibition of child employment among its demands in the 1840s. (p.52)

 

Some Keywords:

child labour, reasons of child labour, ILO, historical approach

 

Çelik, A.(2005); ‘‘On the Unending Story of Child Labour’’, Birikim Magazine, Issue No. 192, Istanbul, April


Çelik, A.(2005); ‘‘On the Unending Story of Child Labour’’, Birikim Magazine, Issue No. 192, Istanbul, April.

Number of Works Cited: 25

Scope:

The introductory section describes the term child labour, revealing the reasons underlying. Following section discusses the struggle against child labour in its historical perspective including Charles Dickens. The profile of child labour has been drawn based on the data of International Labor Organization (ILO). Subsequent sections describe the issue of child labour in Turkey, discussing solutions in consideration of EU norms.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Although child employment is encountered in many periods of history and this form of working had many dimensions, it is unarguable that child labour has become widespread together with the capitalist market. The idea of self-running market refused limitations on child labour for an extended period of time. (p.32)

Some Keywords:

child labour, ILO, international regulation

Bakırcı, K.(2004); ‘‘Child and Youth Labour in Turkey’’, Görüş Magazine, March, p.52-56


Bakırcı, K.(2004); ‘‘Child and Youth Labour in Turkey’’, Görüş Magazine, March, p.52-56.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The introduction section discusses the concept of child labour. And subsequent sections discuss the approach of International Labor Organization (ILO) to the subject and a summary is given in consideration of the current regulations in our country.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Child labour is illegal although it is considered illegal as mentioned above. This case is generally surrounded by the wall of silence and indifference. However, this wall started to crackle.

Some Keywords:

child labour, ILO, national regulation, international regulation

 

Alpar, B.M.(2002); ‘‘Regulations on Working Life Related to the ILO Convention No.182 Concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of Worst Forms of Child Labour’’, Kamu-İş: İş Hukuku ve İktisat Magazine, Volume:7, Issue No.1


Alpar, B.M.(2002); ‘‘Regulations on Working Life Related to the ILO Convention No.182 Concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of Worst Forms of Child Labour’’, Kamu-İş: İş Hukuku ve İktisat Magazine, Volume:7, Issue No.1.

Number of Works Cited: 7

Scope:

After a short introduction conceptually discussing child labour, focus is made to the international law aspects of the topic; ILO conventions, and other international conventions are discussed. Subsequent sections focus on the legal aspects of the topic in our country.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Considering the socio-economic conditions of countries, insufficient resources and lack of infrastructure makes us think that it is hard to eliminate child labour in the short term. Its realization depends on improvement of social and economic conditions in many countries. So, ILO-IPEC set its priority as the Prevention of “Worst Forms of Child Labor”. (p.19)

Some Keywords:

child labour, ILO, socio-economic level, national regulation, international regulation

 

Abay, A.R.(2002); ‘‘Problems of Apprentice Students (The Case of Bostancı Apprentice Training Center)’’, Kocaeli University, Institute of Social Sciences Magazine, Issue No.2


Abay, A.R.(2002); ‘‘Problems of Apprentice Students (The Case of Bostancı Apprentice Training Center)’’, Kocaeli University, Institute of Social Sciences Magazine, Issue No.2.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

To determine the problems of students studying at Bostancı Apprentice Training Center, and produce proposals for solutions in consideration of problems at the national level. Answers to some questions are also sought aimed at this purpose:

What are the socio-economic and socio-cultural conditions of children -and their families- who have moved away from education, are disengaged from the educational system and joined the workforce although they were at the age of compulsory education?

– Can the Apprentice Training we struggle to implement under Law No. 3308 address the need for education to subject children who have moved away from education to reeducation?

-etc.

An excerpt from the article:

Following conclusions were generally made in the light of study findings:

a- Apprentice students generally preferred being car mechanics when they choose their careers.

b- Vast majority of students attending ÇEM (Apprentice Training Center) are above the age of 15 and graduates of elementary school. Considering the degrees of graduation of apprentices from elementary schools, it is obvious that the reason for moving away from education is not failure but lack of interest and economical.

c- In general, families of students are generally elementary school graduates, with vast majority of mothers being housewives and fathers’ being mostly independently-employed. (p.19)

Some Keywords:

apprentices, apprentice training, child labour, child abuse, socio-economic level

 

 

Determining Nature of Poverty on Child Labour


Title of the Study: Determining Nature of Poverty on Child Labour

Type of the Study: Master Project without Dissertation

Author of the Study: Metin Turan

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: İzmir, 2006 (Dokuz Eylül University Institute of Social Sciences Department of Labour Economics and Industrial Relations)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 134

Purpose: Study of poverty and determining nature of poverty on child labour.

Content: Part one discusses poverty, child employment and relevant concepts. Part two discusses the grounds in which child employment has emerged, what its forms are and what results it has created. Part three discusses the dimensions of poverty in the world and in Turkey revealing the dimensions of poverty and child employment.

Method: Literature scanning method is used.

Excerpt: In general sense, the basic reason of child employment is poverty for the family. Generally, it is one of the ways of basic requirements of household. Children with families deprived of economic and social security are obliged to work to contribute to their families. In some cases, it is only the child who brings income to the family. (p.111)

Some keywords: child labour, reasons of child labour, social security, poverty

 

Importance of Child Employment and Child Labour from the Perspective of Human Resources Management in the World and in Turkey


Title of the Study: Importance of Child Employment and Child Labour from the Perspective of Human Resources Management in the World and in Turkey

Type of the Study: Master Thesis

Author of the Study: Ömür Oy

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: İstanbul, September 2001 (İstanbul University, Institute of Social Sciences Department of Human Resources Management)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 154

Purpose: The basic target of the study is to demonstrate the wearing nature of child employment that will damage development of future workforce, that is the children, in the future.

 

Content: Part one gives a detail of the place of children in working life. This part discusses basic information about working children and workplaces and working conditions of working children. Part two discusses the causes of child labour and the place of child labour in the legal system. Part three discusses the international dimension of child labour and national and international projects aimed at the improvement of child labour. Final part focuses on the plans to struggle with child labor.

Method: Types of child labour is examined under 4 groups and negative effects on children in each group are examined in their own dynamics. Emphasis is made on the causes of inability to end child labour, and by utilizing results of certain studies, and problems caused against the struggle against child labour are probed into.

Excerpt: While the number of children under 15 working in industrial jobs in the USA was 1.5 millions in 1850, this figure reached 2 millions in 1910. Businessmen liked the idea of hiring children. Children worked on lower wages compared to adults in jobs requiring no skills. Besides, small hands of children tended to better grasp small tools and small machinery accessories. (p.7)

Keywords: child labour, reasons of child labour, human resources, international regulation

 

 

Child Labour in Leather Sector in the World and Turkey Scale


Title of the Study: Child Labour in Leather Sector in the World and Turkey Scale

Type of the Study: Phd. Thesis

Author of the Study: Ahmet Kemerli

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: İstanbul, 2001 (İstanbul University Institute of Social Sciences Department of Labour Economics and Industrial Relations)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 167

Purpose: Discussion of child labour with regard to child development and analytical examination of factors determining labour. Examination of the current situation of child labour in the world by sectors on country basis

 

Content: The study has four parts. Titled, Child Development and Child Law, the first part focuses on the concept of child. Child labour and factors determining child labour are discussed in the second part. Third part titled Child Labour in the World gives an overview of child labour. Fourth part titled Child Labour in Turkish Leather Sector and Field Study focuses on the structural elements of child labour.

Method: Literature scanning and field survey methods are used. Excerpts are made from DIE surveys conducted in 1994 aimed at children.

Excerpt: Many children work and study at the same time. This is because school hours and number of school days in developing countries is very low. For example, within the frame of IPEC programme, in a study made in shoemaking sector in Brazil it has been found that most of the children attend school and work about 8 hours a day. (p.68)

Some keywords: child labour, child development, reasons of child labour, child labour survey, ILO-IPEC, national regulation

 

 

 

 

 

Child Labour in Turkey


Title of the Study: Child Labour in Turkey

Type of the Study: Master Thesis

Author of the Study: Cengiz Çınar

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: Ankara, 2003 (TODAİE Public Administration Programme)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 80

Purpose: To discuss the historical development in Turkey and the use of child labour in today’s world.

Content: Part one discusses the concepts about the subject. Part two discusses the historical development of the problem of working children and national and international regulations about working children. Part three discusses the forms of utilization of child labour in our country, by studying existing researches and studies, and efforts are made to explain the situation of working children.

Method: Literature scanning method is used.

Excerpt: The reason child labour is used in such high rates in this period was low payment by employers compared to adults and increasing their profits. A second important reason was the elimination of most of the mature male population at the end of the World War I. Many poor families without man were forced to have their children work in factories in order not to be hungry. Besides, that children were suitable for certain types of work increased the demand for child labour. (p.21)

Some keywords: child labour, reasons of child labour, national regulation, poverty

 

Determination of Risk Factors for Child Labor; Comparison of Health Status of Children Workers and Students Attending School

Title of the Study:     Determination of Risk Factors for Child Labor; Comparison of Health Status of Children Workers and Students Attending School

Type of the Study:         Medical Specialization Thesis

Author of the Study:        Dr. Binali Çıtak

Presentation,
Year/Place of Publication:    Denizli, 2006 (Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine
Public Health Department)

Language of the Study:     Turkish

Number of Pages:        102

Purpose:    To evaluate the affect of family’s social status and some socio-demographic properties on children workers and to compare the health status of the children working and the children going to school.

Content:    In the first chapter an introduction takes place. In the second chapter the concepts of child and child workers have explained and legitimate framework has brought up. In the third chapter, the method of the search has been described and in the fourth chapter findings have set forth.

Method:    In the study, that effective factors on children workers has been searched, fact control method has been used. While child workers, aged 18 and under 18, taking education in the Vali Necati Bilican Occupational Education Center have considered as fact group, the students, aged 18 and under 18, taking education in the intensive high schools have considered as control group.

Excerpt:        The relationship between family’s social status and child workers constitutes one of the main findings of this study. In one study carried out, unemployment of father, increases working of children 3 times has reported.

Some keywords:    family, apprentice training, child labour, child health, social status, socio-demographic level, poverty

From Traditional Apprenticeship to Child Labour: A Field Survey


Title of the Study: From Traditional Apprenticeship to Child Labour: A Field Survey

 

Type of the Study: Report

Authors of the Study: Sema Erder – Kuvvet Lordoğlu

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: 1993, İstanbul

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 223

Purpose: To outline what can be done to children living in rural areas especially in poor forest villages that are within the category that ILO defined who work for more than 5 months a year apart from their family and their village and supply their labour to others to contribute to family income.

Content: In the first part, concepts like child labour, child labour in İstanbul, apprentice training and related centers are discussed. In the second part results of the employer survey is given. In the third part data obtained from apprentice survey is pointed out. In the fourth chapter working conditions of the apprentices, in the fifth chapter the way the apprentices look at themselves, in the sixth chapter girl apprentices, in the seventh chapter expectations, and in the eight chapter findings and result can be found.

Method: The research depends on the observations made and interviews done in Ümraniye Small Enterprise Industrial Site where employers are heavily using child labour like metal, machinary manifacturing and textile sectors.

Excerpt: Consequently, the existing apprentice system is regulating the relations between governmet, employers and apprentices. All three partners seem to be happy with this system. But, we have a lot of concerns about how this system can contribute to the enhancement of the skills of apprentices and will rise the incomes of these children. (p.183)

Some Keywords: apprentices, apprentice training, child labour, national regulation

 

 

ILO-IPEC Project Report


Title of the Study: ILO-IPEC Project Report

Type of the Study: Project Report (Project implemented with the supervision of ILO-IPEC)

Authors of the Study: Ministry of Labour and Social Security Work Inspection Board

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: March 1996, Ankara

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 101

Purpose: To gather the works done by Work Inspection Board.

Content: This work is done under Ministry of Labour and Social Security Work Inspection Board’s 8 groups in 8 sectors(metal works, polyester workshops, confection sector, shoe manifacturing, leather, auto repair, auto paint). Inspectors on duty at Malatya work inspection group are also added to the 1994 project. All of the sectors are evaluated under these headlines: Under determining previliged risks; risk chosen, targeted group, the appropraite environment to solve risk, education and information matterials to be used, the problems faced during the implementation of projects are discussed. Under field surveys; training efforts and production of education and communication matterials part, numbers about workplaces, work done concerning education and communication matterials, field surveys, education, evaluation of the work done, state of the previliged risk, reasons of malpractice, new suggestions thought to be useful in future are discussed.

Method: Education and communication techniques are thought to the 39 attendants that took part earlier in 1994 practices so that they have the right qualifiacations to complete the work where these consist of being at the right place at the right time using the right matterials and method. In this study, workplace inspection is taken away from its classical approach. The new method has three stages: The first one is to listen and observe; second is to evaluate and comprehend; third stage is to create policies to change the behaviours toward child labour. Third stage is done under the framework of ILO-IPEC ‘‘Communication and Education Methods’’ project.

 

Excerpt: Employers admit the use of personal protection equipment, the need of appropriate ventilation systems, benefits of high quality inputs, essentiality of seperating the painting area and the harms of high working hours but when it comes to cost evaluation their attitudes change. For these reasons for them to change their attitudes towards the concepts listed above they need time and need proper and frequent education. (p.22)

Some Keywords: apprentice training, child labour, occupational safety and health, risk

 

Pirler, B. (1997); “Non Of The Economic Reasons Can Explain The Work Of Children In Bad Conditions”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine , March-June, Issue No. 31-32, p. 12-14


Pirler, B. (1997); “Non Of The Economic Reasons Can Explain The Work Of Children In Bad Conditions”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine , March-June, Issue No. 31-32, p. 12-14.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The article is based on 26-27 February Amsterdam International Child Labour Conference Report. The participants, activities and the aim of the conference is listed; and the worst forms of child labour are mentioned. Also the international attempts towards child labour has taken place and Amsterdam International Child Labour Conference is evaluated in national, international and european level at the end part.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The conference where child labour problem discussed within the framework of competiton power problem rose within the globalisation process and the efforts of linking international trade and social standards against the developing countries which are taking a greater share from international trade; 30 employer, worker, government and related institute delegates attend. (p.12)

Soe Key Words:

child labour, globalisation, social standards, international regulation

Karataş, K.(1993); “Child Labour Problem: Reasons, Results And Solution Suggestions”, Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Hizmetler Yüksekokulu Magazine, Volume: 11, Issue No. 1-2-3, p. 85-102


Karataş, K.(1993); “Child Labour Problem: Reasons, Results And Solution Suggestions”, Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Hizmetler Yüksekokulu Magazine, Volume: 11, Issue No. 1-2-3, p. 85-102.

Number of Works Cited: 12

Scope:

The study which gives the use of child labour both in the world and in our country with its history also included the national and international legislations and regulations. In the preceding parts the reasons of child labour use and the sectors where child labour is intense and the effect of existing conditions on children are evaluated. The last part where suggestions to solve the problem are listed, the importance of creating a conscious society and a sensitive public opinion to render social change is emphasised. It is also stated that the necessity of active participation of the society is made clear.

An Excerpt from the Article:

As children who are in growing up period have low resistance capacity and weak muscles, they easily get tired. Therefore, they are more proun to occupational diseases and accidents. There are not proper statistics on occupational accidents especially in the developing countries. But the statistics in some developed countries reveal that the ratio of children facing these accidents are quite high. (p.96)

Somke Key Words:

working conditions, child labour, child workers, child health, occupational accident, occupational disease, social change

 

Gökler, B.(1995); “Forming Child Identity Within Working Children”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine , September-October, Issue No. 22, p. 33-35


Gökler, B.(1995); “Forming Child Identity Within Working Children”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine , September-October, Issue No. 22, p. 33-35.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

Within the framework of The Convention On The Rights of The Child, child rights and their location is discussed; the content of the regaining of child identity within the working children is presented.

An Excerpt from the Article :

In summary ‘‘The Regaining Of Child Identity’’ is the main theme of a protective health service approach towards working children; taking care of children and protecting them within the human rights framework is the definition of civilisation efforts. (p.35)

Some Key Words:

child labour, child rights, child identity, child health, international regulation

Fişek, A.G.(1999); “Working Children and Small And Medium Enterprises’’, İşveren Magazine, Volume: 37, Issue No. 7, April, Ankara


Fişek, A.G.(1999); “Working Children and Small And Medium Enterprises’’, İşveren Magazine, Volume: 37, Issue No. 7, April, Ankara.

Number of Works Cited: 5

Scope:

The importance of small enterprises are discovered in the economy again but also the low level of occupational safety and health conditions should be considered as well. Also it is emphasised that occupational diseases and accidents are the results of mal practice of preventive measures and as the number of employees decreases in a work place the conditions worsen(which is even worse in places where there is child labour). In the international arena the debate of child labour is focused on ‘‘intolerable child labour’’ and within this framework from forced labour to working in hard conditions drows the lines.

An Excerpt from the Article:

182 children-adolescents are withdrawn from labour force because of death related to occupational diseases or lost labour capability(disabled). This consists of %3,1 of the group left their work for these reasons. The ones which lost a couple workdays because of injuries or illnesses make up %2,7. (p.19)

Some Key Words:

working conditions, child labour, occupational accident, occupational safety and health, small and medium enterprises, occupational disease

 

Fişek, A.G. (1992); “Mortgage To Countries’ Future: Child Labour”, Petrol-İş ’92 Torch, p. 481-494


Fişek, A.G. (1992); “Mortgage To Countries’ Future: Child Labour”, Petrol-İş ’92 Torch, p. 481-494.

Number of Works Cited: 11

Scope:

After determining the importance of child labour within the international human rights documents from a historical perspective the article continues with the consideration of Turkey in this framework. The child labour concept and its compatibility with human rights issue is taken up within the 3 main human rights tools (The right to work in a healthy and safe place, education right, the right to satisfy basic human needs). The distruction that was caused in the society because of the use of child labur is a mortgage on future and the efforts to recover the situtaion can not be seperated from the efforts to enhance the human rights concepts are discussed in the result and evaluation part.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Either to contribute to family income, or to get rid of future needs child labour(apprenticeship) is an economic concept. The early entry of children into labour markets which has a more economic explanation, withdraws children from education which will make it impossible for them to reach the maximum of their skills. Therefore, child labour can not be considered as a part of the socialising process. (p.486)

Some Key Words:

working conditions, child labour, human rights, socialisation, international regulation

Düzgünoğu, R.A.(1997); “Child Labour Exploitation In The Third World’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine , March-June, p. 31-32, sayfa 10-11

Düzgünoğu, R.A.(1997); “Child Labour Exploitation In The Third World’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine , March-June, p. 31-32, sayfa 10-11.

 

Number of Works Cited: 5

 

Scope:

Child labour in the world and in our country is discussed. The subchapters of the article is as follows; child labour in agriculture, child labour in industry and mines, child prostitutes, employment types of child labour, barriers to the elimination of child labour: globalisation and poverty.

 

An Excerpt from the Article:

Globalisation in manifacturing means that some parts of production processes can be shifted to countries where labour costs are low. As the comparative advantage theory in international trade comes back into the literature successfully, high amounts of child labour gives an important advantage to the least developed economies which compete with their low labour costs. So, this creates an environment where child labour is fed by globalisation. Therefore, elimination of child labour in this situation is just a wishful thought which does not coincide with the realities. (p.11)

 

Some Key Words:

child labour, prostitution, globalisation, child labour in agriculture, poverty

Can, M.(1999); “The New Minimum Wage and Working Children’’, Calisma Ortami, January-February, Issue No. 42, p. 12-14


Can, M.(1999); “The New Minimum Wage and Working Children’’, Calisma Ortami, January-February, Issue No. 42, p. 12-14.

Number of Works Cited: 2

Scope:

In this article the determination of minimum wage process is explained. The comission is 2 partite rather than 3 when the government also acts as an employer as well. Poverty is the main reason for child labour and also the minimum wage and the child labour concepts ae highly interrealted. It is stated that the minimum wages should be determined with the guidance of human rights documents and their principles that are signed by the government. The duality in the minimum wage creates a legal base for the low wage child labour.

An Excerpt from the Article:

As it is also stated in the Convention On The Rights Of Child, the dual attitude towards minumum wage determination should be eliminated for a child labour free society depending on the principle of the protection of the child. (p.14)

Some Key Words:

minimum wage, child labour, national regulation

Balamir, A.(1982); “Child Labour In Turkish Manifacturing Sector’’, Nüfusbilim Magazine, 1982, Volume: 4, p. 99-117


Balamir, A.(1982); “Child Labour In Turkish Manifacturing Sector’’, Nüfusbilim Magazine, 1982, Volume: 4, p. 99-117.

Number of Works Cited: 11

Scope:

The study emphasises that although it is expected that child labour will be eliminated soon, there still is a huge amount of child labourers in the developing countries. The results from a survey conducted in 1979 was compared with the new ones and the dimensions of child labour in the non-agricultural sector is discussed. The main sectors that children are employed, the labour volumes in our industry, child labour in small scale enterprises and data about the volume of child labour in our country is given. Quantitative analysis are given a more importance as there are new recomendations on the estimations of the total number of child labour.

An Excerpt from the Article:

There might also be misinformation in other sectors where children are employed apart from the industrial ones such as domestic, service, hotels, restaurants, trade, wholesale, retail sectors. If it is considered that the amount of missing child labourers as a ratio is the same in other sectors, the number of children employed under the age of 15 in the non-agricultural sector would be 431.837 rather than the number given as the result of 1979 General Population Census which is only 118.206. If the ones that are looking for vacant places are added this number would rise to 447.373. And if this number is added to the economically active labour force in the whole manifacturing sector, we would get 1.601.431. And the ratio of economically active children under the age 15 to the whole labour force would be %27 rather than %5. (p.112)

Bazı Anahtar Sözcükler:

child labour, child employment, population