Determination of Risk Factors for Child Labor; Comparison of Health Status of Children Workers and Students Attending School

Title of the Study:     Determination of Risk Factors for Child Labor; Comparison of Health Status of Children Workers and Students Attending School

Type of the Study:         Medical Specialization Thesis

Author of the Study:        Dr. Binali Çıtak

Presentation,
Year/Place of Publication:    Denizli, 2006 (Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine
Public Health Department)

Language of the Study:     Turkish

Number of Pages:        102

Purpose:    To evaluate the affect of family’s social status and some socio-demographic properties on children workers and to compare the health status of the children working and the children going to school.

Content:    In the first chapter an introduction takes place. In the second chapter the concepts of child and child workers have explained and legitimate framework has brought up. In the third chapter, the method of the search has been described and in the fourth chapter findings have set forth.

Method:    In the study, that effective factors on children workers has been searched, fact control method has been used. While child workers, aged 18 and under 18, taking education in the Vali Necati Bilican Occupational Education Center have considered as fact group, the students, aged 18 and under 18, taking education in the intensive high schools have considered as control group.

Excerpt:        The relationship between family’s social status and child workers constitutes one of the main findings of this study. In one study carried out, unemployment of father, increases working of children 3 times has reported.

Some keywords:    family, apprentice training, child labour, child health, social status, socio-demographic level, poverty

Varol, N.(1999); “Behaviours Are The Determinants of Adult’s Duties to Children’’ , İşveren Magazine, Volume :37, Issue No. 7, April, Ankara


Varol, N.(1999); “Behaviours Are The Determinants of Adult’s Duties to Children’’ , İşveren Magazine, Volume :37, Issue No. 7, April, Ankara.

Number of Works Cited: 6

Scope:

The article includes the results of the study started on July 1998 to find out the working conditions of children and supplying health services within the TİSK/ILO-IPEC programme. Only with sensitive approaches sound soltions can be produced. Guidance and councelling services should be given with the hands of Child Bureaus in the Workplace Common Health Units.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The health examination, audio tests, respiration function tests and coloured eye examinations done by Fişek Institute Working Children Science And Action Foundation on 175 children it is found that %91,4 of children had deviations from good health states, and the most common health problem diagnosed was the eardrom disorders because of middle ear illnesses, 20 children had respiratory problems, 12 children have difficulties in hearing because of work related factors, 7 children had colour blindness, 4 children had inflamation, 3 children had heart problems, 2 children had lowblood pressure. (p.23)

Some Key Words:

child bureaus, child workers, child health, occupational accident, occupational disease

 

Türkmen, A.E.(1993); “Nutrition of Working Children Ages 12-18”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine May, Issue No. 8, p. 61-63


Türkmen, A.E.(1993); “Nutrition of Working Children Ages 12-18”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine May, Issue No. 8, p. 61-63.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The period of adolescence and nutrition is discussed and findings of researches made in Antalya and Diyarbakır industrial sites are mentioned. Nutritional states of adolscencents are taken as a subject.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Some of the children are secondary school students and some are adolescent workers. The study shows that both groups have nutritional problems. Especially apprentices do not consume enough amount of energy, their animal protein intake is low and they can’t meet their vitamin and mineral needs with the diets they have. These children have these complaints after the end of their schhol day or work hours: headache, dizyness, feeling cold, sweating, attention deficit disorder and etc. The reasons of these problems are insufficient and unsystematic nutrition. (p.61)

 

Some Key Words:

diet, working children, apprentices, child health, adolescence

Tezgider, G.(1979); “The State Of Children In The Professional Life”, Çalışma Dergisi, Magazine January-April, p. 57-66


Tezgider, G.(1979); “The State Of Children In The Professional Life”, Çalışma Dergisi, Magazine January-April, p. 57-66.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

In the article the differences in income distribution and the places where children work are discussed. The constitutional side of child labour is explained and the ruthless exploitation of children in labour markets and the destruction of physical, menthal and ethical development of children is emphasised. Also the working children are far away from school, social security and social protection. And it is also discussed if the student status given to apprentices helps the exploitation or not. Also the trade union membership and activities of apprentices are restricted.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Everday the need for determining the minimum age for working, the cutting of work hours and strengthening the law sanctions is discussed. But even these insufficient laws are not applied in practice. We can say that the laws which are violated the most are the ones concerning the protection against child labour. The children are forced to work for more than 8 hours and their health examinations are never done. Even if the sanctions of laws are ineffect there is not much to do as the employer has to pay 1500 liras if violated the laws. Child health is that cheap. (p.62)

Some Key Words:

minimum age, apprenticeship, child development, reasons of child labour, child health, trade unions, social security, national regulation

 

 

Taşçı, N.; Şahin, M.; Baysal, A.(1987); “ The Nutrition Condition Of The Children Attending School and Working Between Ages 12-14 in Ankara”, Beslenme ve Diyet Magazine, Issue No. 16, s. 139-152


Taşçı, N.; Şahin, M.; Baysal, A.(1987); “ The Nutrition Condition Of The Children Attending School and Working Between Ages 12-14 in Ankara”, Beslenme ve Diyet Magazine, Issue No. 16, s. 139-152.

Number of Works Cited: 9

Scope:

The research is conducted on 94 apprentices working in woodwork sector and 94 students attending to 60th. Year Primary School which sum up to 188 children. It is found that children who start working in their adolescence ages and who are not nourished sufficiently seem to have physical development problems. The article suggests that to overcome malnutrition, conscious nutritional spending activities and distribution of milk and derivatives to primary schools free of charge should be supported.

An Excerpt from the Article:

In a research made it is found that the average height of students attending Ankara College was 168,2 cm. while the average in Çubuk Secondary School was 154,6 cm. and the difference is significantly high. In this study the students attending the school have average heights more than the ones attending to Çubuk Secondary School but less than the ones attending Ankara College. Though the ones working have average heights far more less than the students attending Çubuk Secondary School.This information shows that the nutrients taken by working children are transformed into working energy rather than physical development. (p.150)

Some Key Words:

woodworks, diet, apprentices, child health, adolescence

Karataş, K.(1993); “Child Labour Problem: Reasons, Results And Solution Suggestions”, Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Hizmetler Yüksekokulu Magazine, Volume: 11, Issue No. 1-2-3, p. 85-102


Karataş, K.(1993); “Child Labour Problem: Reasons, Results And Solution Suggestions”, Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Hizmetler Yüksekokulu Magazine, Volume: 11, Issue No. 1-2-3, p. 85-102.

Number of Works Cited: 12

Scope:

The study which gives the use of child labour both in the world and in our country with its history also included the national and international legislations and regulations. In the preceding parts the reasons of child labour use and the sectors where child labour is intense and the effect of existing conditions on children are evaluated. The last part where suggestions to solve the problem are listed, the importance of creating a conscious society and a sensitive public opinion to render social change is emphasised. It is also stated that the necessity of active participation of the society is made clear.

An Excerpt from the Article:

As children who are in growing up period have low resistance capacity and weak muscles, they easily get tired. Therefore, they are more proun to occupational diseases and accidents. There are not proper statistics on occupational accidents especially in the developing countries. But the statistics in some developed countries reveal that the ratio of children facing these accidents are quite high. (p.96)

Somke Key Words:

working conditions, child labour, child workers, child health, occupational accident, occupational disease, social change

 

Gökler, B.(1995); “Forming Child Identity Within Working Children”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine , September-October, Issue No. 22, p. 33-35


Gökler, B.(1995); “Forming Child Identity Within Working Children”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine , September-October, Issue No. 22, p. 33-35.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

Within the framework of The Convention On The Rights of The Child, child rights and their location is discussed; the content of the regaining of child identity within the working children is presented.

An Excerpt from the Article :

In summary ‘‘The Regaining Of Child Identity’’ is the main theme of a protective health service approach towards working children; taking care of children and protecting them within the human rights framework is the definition of civilisation efforts. (p.35)

Some Key Words:

child labour, child rights, child identity, child health, international regulation

Fişek, A.G.; “Medico-Social Problems Of The Child Workers Research”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, May, Issue No. 8, p. 27-32


Fişek, A.G.; “Medico-Social Problems Of The Child Workers Research”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, May, Issue No. 8, p. 27-32.

Number of Works Cited: 29

Scope:

The article which takes the situation where there is no alternative as the main reason of full time child labour in the developing countries also gives findings on working children’s profiles and health conditions of child workers employed in the small scale enterprises. In the result part, social policies towards child workers should be revised and new models should be applied. With the inclusion of children, a medico-social organisation which surrounds apprentice education centers and work places are recommended to take place.

 

An Excerpt from the Article:

When children’s expectations about the future is considered, results worth thinking of and different in terms of educational status, gender and backgrounds are revealed. Girls with the effect of traditional structure are planning to withdraw from the working life. The girls who are under the effect of this thought consists of %71,8 of the girls that are the sample population of this survey. This really effects their future lives very closely. Because they do not want to become a skilled worker. But observations shows that they are forced to return back to the active labour markets because of economic difficulties without any skills. (p.29)

Some Key Words:

diet, apprentice training, child workers, child health, occupational safety and health, medico-social problems

 

 

Fişek, A.G.(1993); “Children Are Flowers…..What About Apprentices?”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, May, Issue No. 8, p. 2-7


Fişek, A.G.(1993); “Children Are Flowers…..What About Apprentices?”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, May, Issue No. 8, p. 2-7.

Number of Works Cited: 3

Scope:

In this article the dimensions of the early entry of children into the labour markets is discussed and pointed out that they are working without the protection mechanisms that is required by the contemporary social system. Health problems unique to working children can only be solved with a universal health service web which guards the peculiar problems of the group. The view that making of working conditions of these apprentices more safe and healthy is the most appropriate point of intervention which will provide change in the society is claimed.

An Excerpt from the Article:

In societies where child labour is widely used, children and adults work next to each other and share the same problems. Some facts that are confronted in the work places detoriortes the health conditions of adults as well as the children. For example, the hydro chloric acid which is present at the environment efects adults’ lungs as much as the children’s. This means that these societies are not ready to incline to the subjects which poses a unique risk for children. So, every step taken to protect children in the working life will simultaneously provide benefits to adult workers. (p.3)

Some Key Words:

working children, child health, medico-social problems

Fişek, A.G.( 1988 ); “ Working Life and Child”, Second National Occupational Health Congress, 4-7 April 1988, Ankara, p. 253-264


Fişek, A.G.( 1988 ); “ Working Life and Child”, Second National Occupational Health Congress, 4-7 April 1988, Ankara, p. 253-264.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The report aims to explain the problems caused by the presence of child labour in the professional life depends on the research done to reveal the medico-social conditions of the child workers. The survey is done in four different cities including Ankara, Eskişehir, Bursa, Kızılcahamam on 379 child workers and 297 students as the control group and it reveals the differences of these two groups of children in terms of the world they live in. These are the topics of the article: The effect of background on child labour, the reasons for heading towards labour force, the working conditions of children, their level of knowledge on the rights they have, first job and changing job, child workers’ growth, diet and health conditions. And the article ends with the evaluation chapter.

An Excerpt from the Article:

These findings shows the role of rural effect on the group that are trying to maintain a profession using traditional methods; Also it underlines that child labour is an important tool in breaking the circle who would like to escape from the rural life. But, this group which did not take any industrial culture and who confronts science and technology already are more exposed to high risks and have difficulties in adapting the changing conditions of life are the facts that should be considered in terms of social policy very briefly. (p.254)

Some Key Words:

working children, working conditions, child health, changing jobs

Fırat, M.;(1998) “The State Of Working Children, Findings and Recommendations”, Third National Occupational Health Congress, TTB Central Council, October, Ankara, p. 357-370


Fırat, M.;(1998) “The State Of Working Children, Findings and Recommendations”, Third National Occupational Health Congress, TTB Central Council, October, Ankara, p. 357-370.

Number of Works Cited: 9

Scope:

The presentation emphasised the place of child labour in national and international regulations and cathegorised children according to field they work. Then the findings from the survey where 182 working children attending the Yenibosna East Industrial Site Apprentice Education Center and 170 children attending the Trade Lycee under the age of 15 are discussed. The ways to break the linkages between the chaines which makes child labour attractive and profitable are recommended in the end part of the presentation.

An Excerpt from the Article:

It is observed that working children frequently change their jobs. The main reason for this is the bad attitudes of elderly to themselves and not being able to communicate with the employers. 41% of them change their jobs solely for this reason. %19 change because of low wages and the dangerous and heavy nature of their jobs. (p.363)

Some Key Words:

working children, apprentices, child health

Bayçın, S.; Kozcu A, Ş.; Öncü, S.; Özgüle, A.; Şahbaz, H.; Şahbaz, T. (1998); “The 5th Year Primary School Students’ School Attendence and Work Behaviour and Their Future Occupatinal Expectations That Live in İzmir-Karşıyaka Ghetto Area”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, November-December, No. 41, p. 17-19


Bayçın, S.; Kozcu A, Ş.; Öncü, S.; Özgüle, A.; Şahbaz, H.; Şahbaz, T. (1998); “The 5th Year Primary School Students’ School Attendence and Work Behaviour and Their Future Occupatinal Expectations That Live in İzmir-Karşıyaka Ghetto Area”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, November-December, No. 41, p. 17-19.

Number of Works Cited: 6

Scope:

The survey is done before İzmir Working Children Group’s education to the parents of the 5th grade primary school children about the Apprenticeship Training Centers. First the primary schools that children attend with highest possibilty of not continuing secondary education in Karşıyaka district ghetto area are determined and the factors effecting are outlined. The 1634 children studying in the 5th grade of Gümüşpala, Cumhuriyet, Örnekköy, Yamanlar and Küçük Yamanlar area primary schools are the population of this research. The attitudes of these children towards working while they attend school and their intention of attending secondary schools are surveyed where the population’s %46,6 are girls and %53,4 are boys. The findings are compared with DIE’s (State Statistical Institute) Household Labour Force Survey and A.G.Fişek’s ‘Medico-Social Problems of The Working Children’ research.

An Excerpt from the Aerticle:

Although it is illegal to employ anyone under the age of 11, %21,7 of the childen are found to be part-time workers while attending primary school. Economic concers outlawed legal issues. It is expected that these children are highly likely to start working after completing primary school. %29,8 said they will not be attending secondary school or they said they are not sure yet. Although when we look at what they want to become in the future, the anwers show that university education is needed for these jobs. (p.19)

Some Key Words:

apprentices, apprentice training, child labour survey, child health