Children Workers Distorted Bodies


Title of the Study: Children Workers Distorted Bodies

Type of the Study: Book

Author of the Study: Duyar, İzzet

Özener, Barış

 

Presentation,,

Year/Place of Publication: Ankara, 2003

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 224

Purpose: This book seeks an answer to how hundreds of millions of young bodies are affected from working conditions. Historical development and current status of child labor in the world and in Turkey are also discussed.

Content: The Book touches the historical perspectives of ‘child labor’ emerging as a new phenomenon following the entry of capitalism into the industrialization stage in Western Europe, and then discusses the situation specifically in Turkey with a field study based on detailed data.

Method: Literature scanning and field study methods have been used. To determine the distortions made by the working life on the child body, child apprentices in urban workshops are examined. To do this, a study has been conducted on 532 male apprentices aged between 14-18 in two big apprentice training centers in Ankara who attend to the center one day a week under the law and do practice in a workplace in other days in the area they are trained. To determine the bodily distortions in working children, non-working students in the same age range and from the same socio-economic level has been examined as control group and effects of working life on the apprentice children are demonstrated.

Excerpt: Although legal regulations are made to prevent child labor by having tem work as workers and regulations are set for limiting and elimination of child labor starting from the industrialization period and although at least labor safety of children and youth is struggled to be ensured, the problem still remains there; and it is even seen that child labor is resorted more in non-Western societies in parallel with the increase of poverty.

Some keywords: apprentices, child development, ectomorphy, endomorphy, socio-economic level

 

Özener, B.; Duyar, İ.; ‘‘Working Children: Distorted Bodies’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No.54, January-February 2001


Özener, B.; Duyar, İ.; ‘‘Working Children: Distorted Bodies’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No.54, January-February 2001.

Number of Works Cited: 10

Scope:

Number of children working in workshops in cities is studied to determine the distortions caused by working life on the body of children. To do this, a study has been made on 532 male apprentices aged between 14 and 18 attending the two apprentice training centers in Ankara (Ahi Evran-Ostim) one day a week under the law and in other days maintaining their practical education by working in the area they are trained. To determine the bodily distortions in working children, a group of children who are not working has been studied as the control group with the same socio-economic level has been examined and the effects of working life on the children area revealed.

An Excerpt from the Article:

This excessive growth and muscle tissue increase in bones unfortunately seems to be occurring at the cost of development in height. Low values of apprentices with regards height and ectomorphy components may be interpreted as a support to this opinion. Low ectomorphy component values means that height is not doing its normal development. Backwardness against working children in endomorphy, another component of the body, reveals that working children do not have sufficient amounts of fat accumulation. (p.3)

Some Keywords:

apprentices, child development, ectomorphy, endomorphy, socio-economic level

 

 

Child Labour in Leather Sector in the World and Turkey Scale


Title of the Study: Child Labour in Leather Sector in the World and Turkey Scale

Type of the Study: Phd. Thesis

Author of the Study: Ahmet Kemerli

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: İstanbul, 2001 (İstanbul University Institute of Social Sciences Department of Labour Economics and Industrial Relations)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 167

Purpose: Discussion of child labour with regard to child development and analytical examination of factors determining labour. Examination of the current situation of child labour in the world by sectors on country basis

 

Content: The study has four parts. Titled, Child Development and Child Law, the first part focuses on the concept of child. Child labour and factors determining child labour are discussed in the second part. Third part titled Child Labour in the World gives an overview of child labour. Fourth part titled Child Labour in Turkish Leather Sector and Field Study focuses on the structural elements of child labour.

Method: Literature scanning and field survey methods are used. Excerpts are made from DIE surveys conducted in 1994 aimed at children.

Excerpt: Many children work and study at the same time. This is because school hours and number of school days in developing countries is very low. For example, within the frame of IPEC programme, in a study made in shoemaking sector in Brazil it has been found that most of the children attend school and work about 8 hours a day. (p.68)

Some keywords: child labour, child development, reasons of child labour, child labour survey, ILO-IPEC, national regulation

 

 

 

 

 

Tezgider, G.(1979); “The State Of Children In The Professional Life”, Çalışma Dergisi, Magazine January-April, p. 57-66


Tezgider, G.(1979); “The State Of Children In The Professional Life”, Çalışma Dergisi, Magazine January-April, p. 57-66.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

In the article the differences in income distribution and the places where children work are discussed. The constitutional side of child labour is explained and the ruthless exploitation of children in labour markets and the destruction of physical, menthal and ethical development of children is emphasised. Also the working children are far away from school, social security and social protection. And it is also discussed if the student status given to apprentices helps the exploitation or not. Also the trade union membership and activities of apprentices are restricted.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Everday the need for determining the minimum age for working, the cutting of work hours and strengthening the law sanctions is discussed. But even these insufficient laws are not applied in practice. We can say that the laws which are violated the most are the ones concerning the protection against child labour. The children are forced to work for more than 8 hours and their health examinations are never done. Even if the sanctions of laws are ineffect there is not much to do as the employer has to pay 1500 liras if violated the laws. Child health is that cheap. (p.62)

Some Key Words:

minimum age, apprenticeship, child development, reasons of child labour, child health, trade unions, social security, national regulation

 

 

Özbay, H., N. Şahin vd., “Personality Image at Adolesence: Comparison Between working and Studying Adolescents’’, Türk Psikiyatri Magazine, Ankara, 1991, Volume:7, Issue No. 2, p. 82-96


Özbay, H., N. Şahin vd., “Personality Image at Adolesence: Comparison Between working and Studying Adolescents’’, Türk Psikiyatri Magazine, Ankara, 1991, Volume:7, Issue No. 2, p. 82-96.

Number of Works Cited: 22

Scope:

This research is made to find out how youngsters spend their adolscence period. There are two groups compared in this study. One group selected using half-random sample technique from a group of adolescents working between the ages 12-22 and the other group is selected from the same socio-economic backgrounds which attend schools so that comparisons can be made from an age range of 11-21. It is found that %17 are having real diificulties in this period. Also the mixed characteristics of this period is tried to outlined.

 

An Excerpt from the Article:

In theory, the findings of the scales used in this research which measures behaviorial, emotional,acquaintance and vegetativesigns are expected to be realted with each other. Results obtained using Offer Scale which shows the self-ego image outlines how people evaluate and generalise themselves personally. People who evaluate themselves more positively is believed to have less depression and concern signs.The total points obtained from the scales are used to compare the working and the studying groups. (p.90)

Some Key Words:

personality image, working children, child development, depression, adolescence, socio-economic level

Koçak, A. (1994); “Smoking Habits Among Working Children”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, May-June, Issue No. 14, p. 25-31


Koçak, A. (1994); “Smoking Habits Among Working Children”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, May-June, Issue No. 14, p. 25-31.

Number of Works Cited: 5

Scope:

After discussing smoking habits of the working children, behaviorial and attitude change towards the subject is explained. A training program about the negative aspects of smoking and an action suggestion is included in the article.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Working children apart from the insufficient working conditions are also under the social and cultural risks. The wandering, entering into different environmet and acquiring new friend needs of children are restricted in working life. The pyscho-social development is incomplete and their needs are not covered sufficiently. As a sign of lost of childhood identity, smoking is a risk factor. The protection of working children from these factors can only be maintained by restoring their child identity by tieing up childhood values and concepts to them. Because of this reason multi- dimensional researches, studies and programs that will be conducted carry a big importance. (p.31)

Some Key Words:

working children, working conditions, child development, child identity, cigarette addiction in children

Aygün, T.(1998); “The Concept of Childhood and Children In Our Era”, Third National Occupational Health Congress, TTB Central Council, October, Ankara, p. 350-354


Aygün, T.(1998); “The Concept of Childhood and Children In Our Era”, Third National Occupational Health Congress, TTB Central Council, October, Ankara, p. 350-354.

Number of Works Cited: 6

Scope:

This presentation was in the Health Of Working Children section of the congress. The concept of being a child has changed dramatically in our era and it lost its meaning. The change in the economic environment has also changed the status of the children. The linkages in between the special category of children and the new ways of child labour are discussed as well.

 

An Excerpt from the Article:

The place of working childen in the society has a further meaning than just minimising costs and maximising profits. Apart from being a cheap labour force, they represent the lowest step in the social order and own a place that nobody desires and called as ‘The Doomsed’, in a society where authority is tried to be legalised. Worst of all the amount of street children that are excluded from the society rises everyday and this creates new social fractions and hierarchy. (p.353)

Some Key Words:

apprentice training, child development, child workers, cheap labour

Aygün, R.; Akdur, R.(1978); “Occupational Conditions of The Small Scale Enterprises in Siteler Ankara and Determination of Some Properties of the Workers”, First National Occupational Health Congress, 19-21 October, İstanbul, p. 563-580


Aygün, R.; Akdur, R.(1978); “Occupational Conditions of The Small Scale Enterprises in Siteler Ankara and Determination of Some Properties of the Workers”, First National Occupational Health Congress, 19-21 October, İstanbul, p. 563-580.

Number of Works Cited: 2

Scope:

This survey is made in 100 workplaces to contribute to the studies that are conducted by Ankara Physician’s Chamber about the determination of occupational health conditions and social problems of the workers. It is observed that minimising costs in labour intensive works supports child labour and cheap labour force and also it shows that labour is exploited where occupational health and safety standards are low and where proper official inspections are not made properly. This research is an important guide to the forthcoming studies.

An Excerpt from the Article:

835 (%62,5)workers which attend the survey are under 18 years of age. This data proofs our observations. Big enterprises making the same goods have %9 of workers under the age of 18. (p.564)

Some Key Words:

apprentice training, child development, child workers, occupational safety and health, cheap labour