Children Workers Distorted Bodies


Title of the Study: Children Workers Distorted Bodies

Type of the Study: Book

Author of the Study: Duyar, İzzet

Özener, Barış

 

Presentation,,

Year/Place of Publication: Ankara, 2003

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 224

Purpose: This book seeks an answer to how hundreds of millions of young bodies are affected from working conditions. Historical development and current status of child labor in the world and in Turkey are also discussed.

Content: The Book touches the historical perspectives of ‘child labor’ emerging as a new phenomenon following the entry of capitalism into the industrialization stage in Western Europe, and then discusses the situation specifically in Turkey with a field study based on detailed data.

Method: Literature scanning and field study methods have been used. To determine the distortions made by the working life on the child body, child apprentices in urban workshops are examined. To do this, a study has been conducted on 532 male apprentices aged between 14-18 in two big apprentice training centers in Ankara who attend to the center one day a week under the law and do practice in a workplace in other days in the area they are trained. To determine the bodily distortions in working children, non-working students in the same age range and from the same socio-economic level has been examined as control group and effects of working life on the apprentice children are demonstrated.

Excerpt: Although legal regulations are made to prevent child labor by having tem work as workers and regulations are set for limiting and elimination of child labor starting from the industrialization period and although at least labor safety of children and youth is struggled to be ensured, the problem still remains there; and it is even seen that child labor is resorted more in non-Western societies in parallel with the increase of poverty.

Some keywords: apprentices, child development, ectomorphy, endomorphy, socio-economic level

 

Time Bound Policy and Programme Framework for the Prevention of Child Labor


Title of the Study: Time Bound Policy and Programme Framework for the Prevention of Child Labor

Type of the Study: Book describing the Time-Bound Policy and Programme Framework within the scope of the ILO-IPEC created by the Ministry of Labor and Social Security.

Author of the Study: Ministry of Labor and Social Security

 

Presentation,,

Year/Place of Publication: 2006, Ankara

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 63

Purpose: Promotion and Description of Time-Bound Policy and Programme Framework for the Prevention of Child Labor.

 

Content: A National Policy and Programme has been created to implement time-bound programmes within the scope of ILO-IPEC programme. Accordingly, it has been described in which sectors time-bound programme will be implemented from the year 2004 onwards.

Method: Prepared in the form of a promotion book in brief and short form and describes the National Policy and Programme created within the frame of the Time Bound Programme and way to be followed to reach the targets.

Excerpt: Considering Social and Economic situation analyses, child labor surveys mad in 1994 and 1999, feedback from stakeholders and data obtained from studies aimed at elimination of child labor in Turkey, it is seen that there is a general agreement with regards the basic reasons of child labor.

Some keywords: apprentices, child labour survey, time bound programme

 

 

Gender, Education and Child Labour in Turkey


Title of the Study: Gender, Education and Child Labour in Turkey

 

Type of the Study: Research – Evaluation Report (The work has been conducted within the scope of the ILO-IPEC Programme.)

Author of the Study: Prof.Dr. Yakın Ertürk

Assoc.Prof.Dr. Meltem Dayıoğlu

 

Presentation,,

Year/Place of Publication: 2004, Geneva

Language of the Study: English

Number of Pages: 170

Purpose: This study examines the connections between gender, education and child labour and the subject has been considered from a new perspective in consideration of ILO-IPEC projects conducted and completed in Turkey. Considering child labor only from a commercial perspective, many areas not made for money but child labour is exploited are excluded. Particularly the works done by female children are important here. Considering schooling ratios and education years, there are differences with regards both the areas worked and education received by girls and boys.

Content: First part focuses on the concept of child labour and gives a brief of child labour in Turkey. Part 2 explains the contents and purposes of ILO-IPEC projects conducted in Turkey. Part 3 discusses the concept of gender with regards child labor. Part 4 give macro-level analyses and addresses development, human development, demographic profile, economical environment, income distribution, educational system and regional-sexual differences. Part 5 studies the opportunities and challenges regarding schooling. Part 6 focuses on employment and school participation issues. And Part 7 gives a conclusion.

Method: This study generally adopts a conceptual perspective and to support this, it has benefited from the Household Labour survey conducted in 1994-1999 by DIE.

This study first addressed the concepts of variety of works, and sexuality-based labour. From this sexuality perspective, social-sectoral labor force distribution and from here where the child labour is situated in this sexuality-based labor distribution is have been touched. To do this, micro, meso and macro level analyses have been resorted as supplementary.

Excerpt: ‘This book began with the objective to examine the gender differentials in child labour and educational attainment of children in Turkey. The underlying motivation behind this endeavour was to contribute to development of an integrated approach to gender, education and child labour so that effective intervention strategies may be developed to eradicate child labour while increasing the educational attainment of boys and girls and to overcome existing gender disparities.

Some keywords: gender discrimination, apprentices, apprentice training, human development, socio-economic level

 

Özener, B.; Duyar, İ.; ‘‘Working Children: Distorted Bodies’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No.54, January-February 2001


Özener, B.; Duyar, İ.; ‘‘Working Children: Distorted Bodies’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No.54, January-February 2001.

Number of Works Cited: 10

Scope:

Number of children working in workshops in cities is studied to determine the distortions caused by working life on the body of children. To do this, a study has been made on 532 male apprentices aged between 14 and 18 attending the two apprentice training centers in Ankara (Ahi Evran-Ostim) one day a week under the law and in other days maintaining their practical education by working in the area they are trained. To determine the bodily distortions in working children, a group of children who are not working has been studied as the control group with the same socio-economic level has been examined and the effects of working life on the children area revealed.

An Excerpt from the Article:

This excessive growth and muscle tissue increase in bones unfortunately seems to be occurring at the cost of development in height. Low values of apprentices with regards height and ectomorphy components may be interpreted as a support to this opinion. Low ectomorphy component values means that height is not doing its normal development. Backwardness against working children in endomorphy, another component of the body, reveals that working children do not have sufficient amounts of fat accumulation. (p.3)

Some Keywords:

apprentices, child development, ectomorphy, endomorphy, socio-economic level

 

Öner, S.; Buğdaycı, R.; Kurt, Ö.; Toros, F.(2004); ‘‘Depression Frequency of Students Studying at Mersin Apprentice Training Center and Affecting Factors’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, 18:36-41


Öner, S.; Buğdaycı, R.; Kurt, Ö.; Toros, F.(2004); ‘‘Depression Frequency of Students Studying at Mersin Apprentice Training Center and Affecting Factors’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, 18:36-41.

Number of Works Cited: 38

Scope:

A study made to determine the frequency of depression and depression risk factors in working adolescents is presented in the form of an article. Made in the cross-sectional type, the study included 1152 adolescent apprentices who have attended the Mersin Apprentice Training Center in May 2002. To collect data; a survey questioning the personal, family and working life properties of apprentices and Beck Depression Scale (ÇBDÖ) for Children have been applied. Binary Logistic Regression Analysis has been used to determine risk factors.

An Excerpt from the Article:

There are very limited studies on working adolescents in Turkey and the world. Scarcity of studies limited the comparison of our results. Because this low number of studies did not employ the BLR analysis, affecting factors in our study are researched both by chi-square and BLR. Comprehensive studies on this topic will be guiding in planning health services to be given in this area. It has been found that working life is a factor increasing depression in apprentices. Therefore, in the short-term, centers giving health, safety and psychological consultancy services and social facilities must be established in regions where small and medium sized enterprises are concentrated, in industrial zones and Apprentice Training Centers, and regional solutions must be developed by examining local properties and problems. An in the long-term, child labour must be fully eliminated for the social and economic security of the society. The government, employers, non-governmental organizations, professional bodies and families must cooperate in this area. (p.41)

Some Keywords:

apprentices, apprentice training, depression, preventive health service, risk factors

 

 

Gelegen, D.(2001); ‘‘Child Labor’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, April, 6:42-46


Gelegen, D.(2001); ‘‘Child Labor’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, April, 6:42-46.

Number of Works Cited: 1

Scope:

Leon Warshaw’s article (Precarious Employment and Child Labour, Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety. International Labour Organization. Geneva, 1998.) has been translated to our language. The concepts of child labour and child slavery are explained. Then, the subject has been deepened based on ILO data. The following section discussed in which jobs the children worked and the potential damages of such jobs. The final section focused on economic and social results of child labour.

An Excerpt from the Article:

There are many forms of employment where the workers are subjected to impoverishment, exploitation and maltreatment; and where their health and safety are in great risks. Despite efforts by regulations, international conventions and treaties and solutions offered by them, it seems such working conditions will continue as long as human poverty, repression, misaccommodation and nutritional conditions remain the same. Workers also do not have the chance to benefit from information, education, skill gaining, protective and treating health services required to get rid of the bad situation they are in. (p.6)

Some Keywords:

working conditions, apprentices, child workers, child slavery, child exploitation, social security, poverty

 

Erder, S.(2005); ‘‘Working Children: Apprentice or Worker?’’Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.38-44


Erder, S.(2005); ‘‘Working Children: Apprentice or Worker?’’Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.38-44.

Number of Works Cited: 11

Scope:

The article discusses some trends observed in a field study conducted some 10 years ago about working children. In this study, which is relation-seeking rather than representative, some observations are made about the positions of children working in Istanbul. This field study is based on interviews made in 1993 with children and their employers in Istanbul Umraniye small-sized industrial workplaces; and interviews and observations made with the ‘‘Apprentice Training Center’’ in this region and some workplaces that have launched apprentice training initiatives at their workplaces.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The first point that attracted our attention during the study about working children was that they were not homogenous with regard to their poverty degree, family relationships, origins, working conditions and working motives of children. Likewise, the study conducted by Altıntaş in Ankara also emphasizes that children working on streets are not homogenous groups. Again, studies reveal that the experiences of female children in working life have clear differences compared to those of male children. (p.38)

Some Keywords:

family, working children, working conditions, apprentices, apprentice training, reasons of child labour, girl child labour, poverty

 

 

Canbaz, S.(2003); ‘‘Evaluation of the Trait-Stat Anxiety Levels of Apprentices Attending Samsun Apprentice Training Center’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, 2003, 13:33-39


Canbaz, S.(2003); ‘‘Evaluation of the Trait-Stat Anxiety Levels of Apprentices Attending Samsun Apprentice Training Center’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, 2003, 13:33-39.

Number of Works Cited: 25

Scope:

Millions of children in the growing age are exploited by employment under inconvenient conditions. This study has been planned to reveal the socio-demographic properties and working life details of children studying and working at Samsun Apprentice Training Center (CEM). The Population of this cross-sectional type of study is drawn from “apprentice candidate” and “apprentice” children studying one day of the week at Samsun CEM and working at a workplace in other days during the 2000-2001 educational year. A survey form covering questions relating to socio-demographic aspects, socio-economic level, working area, working environment and risks caused by working conditions has been given to children included in the scope of this study in groups of 15 children and under observation.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Because of the inability to prevent child labour in the short term, action to be taken must be to implement actions to solve the problems of the child in working life, and implement actions to minimize the negative effects of working life on their development. Problems of working children, their causes and solutions are varying. Solutions aimed at problems in this multi-dimensional issue should be addressed in co-operation by the government, employers, non-governmental organizations and professional bodies, families and children. (p.39)

Some Keywords:

working conditions, apprentices, socio-demographic level, socio-economic level

 

Bakar, C.; Maral, I.; Aygün, R.(2004); ‘‘Socio-Demographic Properties, Reasons for Working and Working Life Related Properties of Children Studying at Ostim and Ahievran Apprentice Training Centers’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, 17:21-27


Bakar, C.; Maral, I.; Aygün, R.(2004); ‘‘Socio-Demographic Properties, Reasons for Working and Working Life Related Properties of Children Studying at Ostim and Ahievran Apprentice Training Centers’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, 17:21-27.

Number of Works Cited: 20

Scope:

The study aimed to determine the socio-demographic properties, reasons for working and working life related properties of children studying at two Vocational Training Centers (MEM) in Ankara. Materials and Method: The research has been implemented in June 2002 at Ostim and Ahi Evran MEM. 1.434 (55,7%) of 2575 apprentice students were accessed. The study employed the questionnaire under observation and questionnaire forms composed of three different parts, with the first part being descriptive, second part related to family and third part related to properties about the word being conducted. Data gathering stage has been completed by research assistants and intern doctors.

An Excerpt from the Article:

This study has been conducted in June 2002 at Ostim and Ahi Evran Vocational Training Center (MEM). Before the study, interviews were made with school administrators to inform about the topic and written permissions were obtained from the Provincial Directorate of National Education. 1176 apprentices are studying at Ostim MEM under 44 profession groups, and 1399 apprentices are studying at Ahi Evran MEM under 35 profession groups. The study targeted to reach all students studying at both MEMs, and achieved to reach 1434 (55,7%) students. Because the date of study is at the end of term, there has been a low participation in the study due to the problem of non-attendance.

Some Keywords:

apprentices, apprentice training, occupational accident, socio-demographic level

 

Alkış, N.; İrgil, E.; Pala, K.; Aytekin, H.(2004); ‘‘Working Conditions and Social Problems of Children Studying at Gemlik Apprentice Training Center’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, 17:15-20


Alkış, N.; İrgil, E.; Pala, K.; Aytekin, H.(2004); ‘‘Working Conditions and Social Problems of Children Studying at Gemlik Apprentice Training Center’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, 17:15-20.

Number of Works Cited: 15

Scope:

The study has been conducted in the 2000-2001 educational year to obtain information relating to the working conditions and social problems of apprentices studying and working at Gemlik Apprentice Training Center. 89% of study participants were male, and 11% female, with a mean age of 16,9. 50,5% of apprentices stated that they attended the apprentice training center for the purpose of gaining a profession and 125 apprentices (57,3%) stated that they intended to continue with their education if a new chance could be offered. It has been found that 7,4% of apprentices worked until work completion, and 89,4% worked over 8 hours. These times are much longer than the legally required working hours. Consequently, it was found that apprentices do not practically have the rights given by laws, and worked under heavy conditions.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The apprenticeship establishment implies the children gaining professions within the workman-apprentice relationship in traditional societies and in traditional labour relationships, and familiarize with a profession group. Because apprenticeship is traditionally an establishment that the society is used to and children start working under the title of “apprentice” results in easy exploitation of child labour facing no social or cultural barriers and increase in the number of working children. (p.15)

Some Keywords:

working conditions, working hours, apprentices, alcohol and cigarette addiction in apprentices, social problem

Abay, A.R.(2002); ‘‘Problems of Apprentice Students (The Case of Bostancı Apprentice Training Center)’’, Kocaeli University, Institute of Social Sciences Magazine, Issue No.2


Abay, A.R.(2002); ‘‘Problems of Apprentice Students (The Case of Bostancı Apprentice Training Center)’’, Kocaeli University, Institute of Social Sciences Magazine, Issue No.2.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

To determine the problems of students studying at Bostancı Apprentice Training Center, and produce proposals for solutions in consideration of problems at the national level. Answers to some questions are also sought aimed at this purpose:

What are the socio-economic and socio-cultural conditions of children -and their families- who have moved away from education, are disengaged from the educational system and joined the workforce although they were at the age of compulsory education?

– Can the Apprentice Training we struggle to implement under Law No. 3308 address the need for education to subject children who have moved away from education to reeducation?

-etc.

An excerpt from the article:

Following conclusions were generally made in the light of study findings:

a- Apprentice students generally preferred being car mechanics when they choose their careers.

b- Vast majority of students attending ÇEM (Apprentice Training Center) are above the age of 15 and graduates of elementary school. Considering the degrees of graduation of apprentices from elementary schools, it is obvious that the reason for moving away from education is not failure but lack of interest and economical.

c- In general, families of students are generally elementary school graduates, with vast majority of mothers being housewives and fathers’ being mostly independently-employed. (p.19)

Some Keywords:

apprentices, apprentice training, child labour, child abuse, socio-economic level

 

 

Problems of Working Children: Sivas Apprentice Training Center


Title of the Study: Problems of Working Children: Sivas Apprentice Training Center

Type of the Study: Master Thesis

Author of the Study: Oktay Atmar

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: Ankara, 2006 (TODAİE Public Administration Programme)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 139

Purpose: In the case of Sivas industrial zone, to determine the socio-economic properties and working conditions of children working at the industrial zone and studying at the Vocational Training Center. Therefore, this study aims to establish the situation. The second purpose is to determine how trainings given in Vocational Training Centers will be perceived by children.

Content: First part in the Labor Code bearing the title documents protecting children and child labor describes the concepts of child and child labor, and examines international and national regulations protecting child and youth labor. Part two examines the causes forcing children to work and evaluates problems encountered by problems and vocational trainings in the workplace. Part three gives the findings of the field study applied on the apprentices and employers in Sivas Vocational Training Center.

Method: Survey method has been chosen as data collection method. However, in interpreting and evaluating the survey, contributions of the researcher’s vocational observations are also benefited. The survey is applied to apprentices working in Sivas Vocational Training Center and working at the industrial zone and to master workmen employing these apprentices with them.

Excerpt: Wages to be paid to candidate apprentices, apprentices and students undergoing vocational education in enterprises and increases in these wages will be set by a contract to be made between the school administration and owner of the workplace by the guardian of candidate apprentice or the apprentice or its protector or himself or herself if he is mature. (p.39)

Some keywords: apprentices, apprentice training, vocational training, socio-economic level

 

 

 

 

 

 

From Traditional Apprenticeship to Child Labour: A Field Survey


Title of the Study: From Traditional Apprenticeship to Child Labour: A Field Survey

 

Type of the Study: Report

Authors of the Study: Sema Erder – Kuvvet Lordoğlu

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: 1993, İstanbul

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 223

Purpose: To outline what can be done to children living in rural areas especially in poor forest villages that are within the category that ILO defined who work for more than 5 months a year apart from their family and their village and supply their labour to others to contribute to family income.

Content: In the first part, concepts like child labour, child labour in İstanbul, apprentice training and related centers are discussed. In the second part results of the employer survey is given. In the third part data obtained from apprentice survey is pointed out. In the fourth chapter working conditions of the apprentices, in the fifth chapter the way the apprentices look at themselves, in the sixth chapter girl apprentices, in the seventh chapter expectations, and in the eight chapter findings and result can be found.

Method: The research depends on the observations made and interviews done in Ümraniye Small Enterprise Industrial Site where employers are heavily using child labour like metal, machinary manifacturing and textile sectors.

Excerpt: Consequently, the existing apprentice system is regulating the relations between governmet, employers and apprentices. All three partners seem to be happy with this system. But, we have a lot of concerns about how this system can contribute to the enhancement of the skills of apprentices and will rise the incomes of these children. (p.183)

Some Keywords: apprentices, apprentice training, child labour, national regulation

 

 

Advice Group First Meeting


Title of the Study: Advice Group First Meeting

Type of the Study: Meeting Report (Working Childern Department Capacity Building Project / Within ILO-IPEC Context)

Authors of the Study: Ministry of Labour and Social Security Department of Working Children

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: November 1996, Ankara

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 100

Purpose: The aim of advice group is to gather organisations, associations, foundations, labour unions, NGO’s and government agencies fighting against child labour to share knowledge and experinece and to create a platform to find solutions to the problem. This report aims to share the knowledge, experince and solution propasals to the problem mentioned.

Content: People attend to this meeting from organisations, associations, foundations, labour unions, NGO’s, universities and government agencies. After the openening speach members of the comittee and the projects are presented. In the workshops children working in informal sector, children working in rural areas, the ways to benefit from mass communication services, children working in service sectors, apprentice children, legal and administrative framework for child labour are discussed. Labour General Directorate- Working Children Department (the projects are outlined), Gürhan Fişek- Fişek Health Services and Research Institute (Fişek Model is presented), TESK Vocational Training Center(Workplace inspection is emphasised), TİSK( presented its ongoing projects), Ministry of Education Apprentice and General Education Directorate (ILO-IPEC projects are presented), Center for Children on The Streets of Ankara (gave knowledge about the center) presented these subjects.

Method: Oral and written presentations are quoted.

Excerpt: The importance of this project is that Turkey is one of the two countries that is implementing the ILO project with three partite approach. I guess one is India and the other one is Turkey. The othee countries are implementing the projects only with the governance of labour unions and governments. Though Turkey is using the three partite approach with the inclusion of employers. Therefore, Turkey is under close follow up by the ILO center. (p.13)

Some Keywords: apprentices, informal sector, public institutions, children working in rural areas, trade unions, NGOs

Regulations on Working Children


Title of the Study: Regulations on Working Children

Type of the Study: Report

Authors of the Study: Dr. Samira Yener – İstiklal Alpar

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: January 1985, Ankara

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 28

Purpose: To end child labour in developing countries by activities aiming to stop the exploitation of children and by demolishing the reasons forcing children to work.

Content: The reasons of child labour is given within a specific framework and then the regulations and restrictions concerning working children are listed. In the following chapters regulations concerning apprentices are approached. In the last chapter practices of regulations and the state of vulnerable children with this regard is determined.

Method: An explanatory method based on field survey literature is used.

Excerpt: The laws regarding minimum age to start work are conflicting with each other. Primary Education Law (No:222), states that children between ages 6-14 attending compulsory primary school education can not be employed either in private or public sector with or without any payment. Though Public Health Law (No: 1593) prohibits working in manifacturing under the age of 12, Apprentice Law (No: 2089) brings 12 as minimum age, Labour Law (No: 1475) article 67 permits children that reached 13 years to work in jobs which will not effect their educational, menthal and physical status.(p.23)

Some Keywords: apprentices, occupational accident, children in need of protection, occupational disease, national regulation

 

Türkmen, A.E.(1993); “Nutrition of Working Children Ages 12-18”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine May, Issue No. 8, p. 61-63


Türkmen, A.E.(1993); “Nutrition of Working Children Ages 12-18”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine May, Issue No. 8, p. 61-63.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The period of adolescence and nutrition is discussed and findings of researches made in Antalya and Diyarbakır industrial sites are mentioned. Nutritional states of adolscencents are taken as a subject.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Some of the children are secondary school students and some are adolescent workers. The study shows that both groups have nutritional problems. Especially apprentices do not consume enough amount of energy, their animal protein intake is low and they can’t meet their vitamin and mineral needs with the diets they have. These children have these complaints after the end of their schhol day or work hours: headache, dizyness, feeling cold, sweating, attention deficit disorder and etc. The reasons of these problems are insufficient and unsystematic nutrition. (p.61)

 

Some Key Words:

diet, working children, apprentices, child health, adolescence

Taşçı, N.; Şahin, M.; Baysal, A.(1987); “ The Nutrition Condition Of The Children Attending School and Working Between Ages 12-14 in Ankara”, Beslenme ve Diyet Magazine, Issue No. 16, s. 139-152


Taşçı, N.; Şahin, M.; Baysal, A.(1987); “ The Nutrition Condition Of The Children Attending School and Working Between Ages 12-14 in Ankara”, Beslenme ve Diyet Magazine, Issue No. 16, s. 139-152.

Number of Works Cited: 9

Scope:

The research is conducted on 94 apprentices working in woodwork sector and 94 students attending to 60th. Year Primary School which sum up to 188 children. It is found that children who start working in their adolescence ages and who are not nourished sufficiently seem to have physical development problems. The article suggests that to overcome malnutrition, conscious nutritional spending activities and distribution of milk and derivatives to primary schools free of charge should be supported.

An Excerpt from the Article:

In a research made it is found that the average height of students attending Ankara College was 168,2 cm. while the average in Çubuk Secondary School was 154,6 cm. and the difference is significantly high. In this study the students attending the school have average heights more than the ones attending to Çubuk Secondary School but less than the ones attending Ankara College. Though the ones working have average heights far more less than the students attending Çubuk Secondary School.This information shows that the nutrients taken by working children are transformed into working energy rather than physical development. (p.150)

Some Key Words:

woodworks, diet, apprentices, child health, adolescence

Özşahin, A.; Bostancı, M.; Zencir, M.(1999); “The Occupational Conditions of The Apprentices Studying at The Denizli Vali Necati Bilican Apprentice Training Center’’, Toplum ve Hekim Magazine, Ankara, March- April, 14(2), p. 87-92


Özşahin, A.; Bostancı, M.; Zencir, M.(1999); “The Occupational Conditions of The Apprentices Studying at The Denizli Vali Necati Bilican Apprentice Training Center’’, Toplum ve Hekim Magazine, Ankara, March- April, 14(2), p. 87-92

Number of Works Cited: 28

Scope:

The article is based on the research made at Denizli Vali Necati Bilican Apprentice Training Center which includes information about the living conditions of working children. The subject of this survey which has explanatory characteristics, is the candidate apprentices and apprentices studying and working at the same area. First the general profile of these children and their families are drown then data about their working conditions are given. It is emphasised in this article that these children are working beyond the permission of the laws where they are really poorly paid. Also it is stated that the results of this survey is far more worse than the findings of the other polls.

An Excerpt from the Article:

More than half of the children said(%53,5) they work for 9-12 hours, %28,4 said they work for more than 12 hours a day. Children that work for 8 hours a day, which is the legal standard only consists of %18,1. %69,2 stated that they love their jobs and %27,2 said they only like some aspects of their jobs. When children are asked, %66,6 said they only do their occupational obligations, %29,7 said sometimes they do other staff and %3,7 said they only do the petty jobs. % 58,1 said they do not have any yearly holiday, %13,2 said they have 8-15 days of holiday, %7,2 said they only have less than 7 days of yearly holidays. %83,3 stated that they work 6-7 days a week and only %22,5 work for 5 days a week. (p.89)

Some Key Words:

working conditions, workingh hours, apprentices, apprentice training

Fişek, A.G.(1979); “Protection of Chldren and Youth In Terms Of Human Rights’’, Okul Defteri Magazine, July, Issue No. 3, p. 19-21


Fişek, A.G.(1979); “Protection of Chldren and Youth In Terms Of Human Rights’’, Okul Defteri Magazine, July, Issue No. 3, p. 19-21.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The article is more law based. The reasons why children enter the working life is explained and then the development of social policy tools against child labour is discussed and national and international regulations are quoted. Also findings of a research made in Ankara Iskitler and Industrial Bazaar on apprentices and young workers and SSK’s (Social Insurance Institution) occupational accidents and diseases statistics are given.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The way to keep children and adolescents away from the protective umbrella of Labour Law is found in our country. The majority of this group is employed as apprentices. Some appliers of the law discuss if the new Apprentice and Master Workman Legislation is apart of the labour Law or not. This new law defines these apprentices who are required to take training at most of 8 hours as students. And when other aspects of this law is inspected it gives the impression that it is legislated not to protect the apprentices or the experineced apprentices to protect the employers. (p.20)

Some Key Words:

working conditions, apprentices, apprentice training, occupational accident, occupational disease, national regulation

Fırat, M.;(1998) “The State Of Working Children, Findings and Recommendations”, Third National Occupational Health Congress, TTB Central Council, October, Ankara, p. 357-370


Fırat, M.;(1998) “The State Of Working Children, Findings and Recommendations”, Third National Occupational Health Congress, TTB Central Council, October, Ankara, p. 357-370.

Number of Works Cited: 9

Scope:

The presentation emphasised the place of child labour in national and international regulations and cathegorised children according to field they work. Then the findings from the survey where 182 working children attending the Yenibosna East Industrial Site Apprentice Education Center and 170 children attending the Trade Lycee under the age of 15 are discussed. The ways to break the linkages between the chaines which makes child labour attractive and profitable are recommended in the end part of the presentation.

An Excerpt from the Article:

It is observed that working children frequently change their jobs. The main reason for this is the bad attitudes of elderly to themselves and not being able to communicate with the employers. 41% of them change their jobs solely for this reason. %19 change because of low wages and the dangerous and heavy nature of their jobs. (p.363)

Some Key Words:

working children, apprentices, child health

Bayçın, S.; Kozcu A, Ş.; Öncü, S.; Özgüle, A.; Şahbaz, H.; Şahbaz, T. (1998); “The 5th Year Primary School Students’ School Attendence and Work Behaviour and Their Future Occupatinal Expectations That Live in İzmir-Karşıyaka Ghetto Area”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, November-December, No. 41, p. 17-19


Bayçın, S.; Kozcu A, Ş.; Öncü, S.; Özgüle, A.; Şahbaz, H.; Şahbaz, T. (1998); “The 5th Year Primary School Students’ School Attendence and Work Behaviour and Their Future Occupatinal Expectations That Live in İzmir-Karşıyaka Ghetto Area”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, November-December, No. 41, p. 17-19.

Number of Works Cited: 6

Scope:

The survey is done before İzmir Working Children Group’s education to the parents of the 5th grade primary school children about the Apprenticeship Training Centers. First the primary schools that children attend with highest possibilty of not continuing secondary education in Karşıyaka district ghetto area are determined and the factors effecting are outlined. The 1634 children studying in the 5th grade of Gümüşpala, Cumhuriyet, Örnekköy, Yamanlar and Küçük Yamanlar area primary schools are the population of this research. The attitudes of these children towards working while they attend school and their intention of attending secondary schools are surveyed where the population’s %46,6 are girls and %53,4 are boys. The findings are compared with DIE’s (State Statistical Institute) Household Labour Force Survey and A.G.Fişek’s ‘Medico-Social Problems of The Working Children’ research.

An Excerpt from the Aerticle:

Although it is illegal to employ anyone under the age of 11, %21,7 of the childen are found to be part-time workers while attending primary school. Economic concers outlawed legal issues. It is expected that these children are highly likely to start working after completing primary school. %29,8 said they will not be attending secondary school or they said they are not sure yet. Although when we look at what they want to become in the future, the anwers show that university education is needed for these jobs. (p.19)

Some Key Words:

apprentices, apprentice training, child labour survey, child health