Gender, Education and Child Labour in Turkey


Title of the Study: Gender, Education and Child Labour in Turkey

 

Type of the Study: Research – Evaluation Report (The work has been conducted within the scope of the ILO-IPEC Programme.)

Author of the Study: Prof.Dr. Yakın Ertürk

Assoc.Prof.Dr. Meltem Dayıoğlu

 

Presentation,,

Year/Place of Publication: 2004, Geneva

Language of the Study: English

Number of Pages: 170

Purpose: This study examines the connections between gender, education and child labour and the subject has been considered from a new perspective in consideration of ILO-IPEC projects conducted and completed in Turkey. Considering child labor only from a commercial perspective, many areas not made for money but child labour is exploited are excluded. Particularly the works done by female children are important here. Considering schooling ratios and education years, there are differences with regards both the areas worked and education received by girls and boys.

Content: First part focuses on the concept of child labour and gives a brief of child labour in Turkey. Part 2 explains the contents and purposes of ILO-IPEC projects conducted in Turkey. Part 3 discusses the concept of gender with regards child labor. Part 4 give macro-level analyses and addresses development, human development, demographic profile, economical environment, income distribution, educational system and regional-sexual differences. Part 5 studies the opportunities and challenges regarding schooling. Part 6 focuses on employment and school participation issues. And Part 7 gives a conclusion.

Method: This study generally adopts a conceptual perspective and to support this, it has benefited from the Household Labour survey conducted in 1994-1999 by DIE.

This study first addressed the concepts of variety of works, and sexuality-based labour. From this sexuality perspective, social-sectoral labor force distribution and from here where the child labour is situated in this sexuality-based labor distribution is have been touched. To do this, micro, meso and macro level analyses have been resorted as supplementary.

Excerpt: ‘This book began with the objective to examine the gender differentials in child labour and educational attainment of children in Turkey. The underlying motivation behind this endeavour was to contribute to development of an integrated approach to gender, education and child labour so that effective intervention strategies may be developed to eradicate child labour while increasing the educational attainment of boys and girls and to overcome existing gender disparities.

Some keywords: gender discrimination, apprentices, apprentice training, human development, socio-economic level

 

The CLM (Child Labour Monitoring) in İzmir


Title of the Study: The CLM (Child Labour Monitoring) in İzmir.

Type of the Study: Research – Evaluation Report (The work has been conducted within the scope of the ILO-IPEC Programme.)

Author of the Study: Dr. Dilek Cindoğlu

 

Presentation,,

Year/Place of Publication: 2003, Ankara

Language of the Study: English

Number of Pages: 39

Purpose: Description of the method used within the frame of the programme for the elimination of child labour in some selected sectors in Izmir during the years 2000-2003.

 

Content: Targets, method and results of the programme conducted in Izmir within the frame of the ILO-IPEC programme have been revealed. In this framework, 5890 children under the age of 15 working in car repair works, textile sector and shoe production sector are removed from working life and enrolled with relevant schools to make sure they get the necessary education.

Method: Prepared as a report, this publication discusses the method followed within the frame of the programme to eliminate child labour in relevant sectors between the years 2000-2003 in Izmir. Questions asked in questionnaires and method used is given at the end of the report.

Excerpt: The formation of this type of collaborative working group on child labour enhanced the level of institutional support available and ensured that referrals were well-coordinated at an operational level. (p.15)

Some keywords: working children, apprentice training, child labour survey

 

Senemoğlu, N.(2001); ‘‘Children’s Rights, Working Children and Educational Problems’’, Milli Eğitim Magazine, No: 151, MEB Publications, Ankara, July-September, pp.1-12


Senemoğlu, N.(2001); ‘‘Children’s Rights, Working Children and Educational Problems’’, Milli Eğitim Magazine, No: 151, MEB Publications, Ankara, July-September, pp.1-12.

Number of Works Cited: 30

Scope:

Discussing the working children and their educational problems, this article comprises the following sections: Participation of Child Population to Education and Workforce in Turkey and Problems, General Educational Problems of Working Children and Proposals for Solution and Vocational Training Problems of Children Working in SMEs and Proposals for Solutions.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Moreover, while the number of female children employed in the city between the ages 15 and 19 were lower in 1991 and 1994 compared to male children in cities, in rural areas they were more than male in 1991 April, and near the number of male children in 1994 October. This may be due to the fact, as given above, that male in the cities are working mostly in the industry and in agriculture in rural areas. However, in 1997, employment ratios of female children between 15 and 19 are higher than male children both in urban and rural areas. It is even observed that employment of girls between 15 and 19 is higher than male children at a ratio of about 1/3. This may be an indicator that female children start working at earlier ages in urban and rural areas and may also be a result of female children being unable to continue with their education. Considering the schooling ratios of male and female children at these ages, there is a consistency between the findings.

Some Keywords:

apprentice training, child rights, child employment, globalisation

 

 

Öner, S.; Buğdaycı, R.; Kurt, Ö.; Toros, F.(2004); ‘‘Depression Frequency of Students Studying at Mersin Apprentice Training Center and Affecting Factors’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, 18:36-41


Öner, S.; Buğdaycı, R.; Kurt, Ö.; Toros, F.(2004); ‘‘Depression Frequency of Students Studying at Mersin Apprentice Training Center and Affecting Factors’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, 18:36-41.

Number of Works Cited: 38

Scope:

A study made to determine the frequency of depression and depression risk factors in working adolescents is presented in the form of an article. Made in the cross-sectional type, the study included 1152 adolescent apprentices who have attended the Mersin Apprentice Training Center in May 2002. To collect data; a survey questioning the personal, family and working life properties of apprentices and Beck Depression Scale (ÇBDÖ) for Children have been applied. Binary Logistic Regression Analysis has been used to determine risk factors.

An Excerpt from the Article:

There are very limited studies on working adolescents in Turkey and the world. Scarcity of studies limited the comparison of our results. Because this low number of studies did not employ the BLR analysis, affecting factors in our study are researched both by chi-square and BLR. Comprehensive studies on this topic will be guiding in planning health services to be given in this area. It has been found that working life is a factor increasing depression in apprentices. Therefore, in the short-term, centers giving health, safety and psychological consultancy services and social facilities must be established in regions where small and medium sized enterprises are concentrated, in industrial zones and Apprentice Training Centers, and regional solutions must be developed by examining local properties and problems. An in the long-term, child labour must be fully eliminated for the social and economic security of the society. The government, employers, non-governmental organizations, professional bodies and families must cooperate in this area. (p.41)

Some Keywords:

apprentices, apprentice training, depression, preventive health service, risk factors

 

Ocakçı, A.; Berk, Z.; Sala, G.(2000); ‘‘Coiffeur Apprentices and Their Work-Related Risks’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No.49, March-April


Ocakçı, A.; Berk, Z.; Sala, G.(2000); ‘‘Coiffeur Apprentices and Their Work-Related Risks’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No.49, March-April.

Number of Works Cited: 4

Scope:

A study has been planned based on the need to determine the risks of children working in the coiffeur and barber sectors are facing in order that they can be protected against such risks. The study universe is the 160 students studying in this branch at Zonguldak Apprentice Training Center. 103 children aged between 13 and 18 accepted to take part in this study. Questionnaire form of 32 questions is created by face-to-face question and answer method. Subsequent sections of the article examine the finding obtained as a result of this study.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Because coiffeur activities require direct contact with the skin and hand accidents like hand cuts are frequently experienced, proposals may be made particularly for immunization of apprentices particularly with hepatitis and tetanus vaccines, school-master workman and guardian communication must be ensured on a continuous basis in order that apprentices are not mistreated both by the customer and the work mates during their working lives and in order that they do not experience other problems, for planning of regular and continuous education programs at these centers, and for warning of apprentices in order that they do not face any harassment by giving sexual education in these programs. (p.10)

 

Some Keywords:

apprentice training, sexual exploitation of children, occupational hazards, coiffeur apprentices, risk

 

 

Güler, E.Ç.(2001); ‘‘Child Labour and Education’’, In: (Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara, p.67-99


Güler, E.Ç.(2001); ‘‘Child Labour and Education’’, In: (Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara, p.67-99.

Number of Works Cited: 9

Scope:

The articles tries to discuss the status of child labour existing in Turkey and its relationship with education as well as illustrating the results of a survey titled ‘Project for Gaining Working Children to the Educational System’ conducted within the scope of the ILO-IPEC and Ministry of Labour and Social Security with 150 children working in shoemaking, car-repair and apparel sectors in Izmir, with discussions about the child labour and education sections of findings.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Although the definition of child and its social status may differ from one nation to the other, universally created criteria are guiding in this topic. United Nation’s Convention on Children Rights accepts the criterion that all human beings must be considered until the age of 18; our country also approved this convention thereby accepting this definition based on age. (p.71)

Some Keywords:

apprentice training, child rights, child workers, ILO-IPEC

 

 

Fişek, O.; Balcı, Y.; Fişek, A.G.(2001); ‘‘Inequality of Gender Roles as a Source of Child Exploitation and Negligence’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No. 59, November-December


Fişek, O.; Balcı, Y.; Fişek, A.G.(2001); ‘‘Inequality of Gender Roles as a Source of Child Exploitation and Negligence’’, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, Issue No. 59, November-December.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

Reasons underlying child negligence and exploitation are studied in consideration of social gender inequalities. Literacy rates, ratio of men-women at workplaces, sector ratio of men-women, ratio of working reasons of female-male children are compared and studied in detail.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Again, studies demonstrate that both families and girls in working life tend to get away from working life when they are married. Leaving work after marriage is something specific to girls. This attitude is not seen in men. While the number of women working until the age 25 is twice that of working men, this ratio is reversed after the age of 25. (p.4)

Some Keywords:

apprentice training, child labour, child abuse

 

Erder, S.(2005); ‘‘Working Children: Apprentice or Worker?’’Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.38-44


Erder, S.(2005); ‘‘Working Children: Apprentice or Worker?’’Tes-İş Magazine, June, p.38-44.

Number of Works Cited: 11

Scope:

The article discusses some trends observed in a field study conducted some 10 years ago about working children. In this study, which is relation-seeking rather than representative, some observations are made about the positions of children working in Istanbul. This field study is based on interviews made in 1993 with children and their employers in Istanbul Umraniye small-sized industrial workplaces; and interviews and observations made with the ‘‘Apprentice Training Center’’ in this region and some workplaces that have launched apprentice training initiatives at their workplaces.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The first point that attracted our attention during the study about working children was that they were not homogenous with regard to their poverty degree, family relationships, origins, working conditions and working motives of children. Likewise, the study conducted by Altıntaş in Ankara also emphasizes that children working on streets are not homogenous groups. Again, studies reveal that the experiences of female children in working life have clear differences compared to those of male children. (p.38)

Some Keywords:

family, working children, working conditions, apprentices, apprentice training, reasons of child labour, girl child labour, poverty

 

 

Ege, B.G.(2001); ‘‘Who is the Working Child?’’, (In: Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara


Ege, B.G.(2001); ‘‘Who is the Working Child?’’, (In: Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara.

Number of Works Cited: 7

Scope:

It is clear that there will be countless benefits in familiarizing with working children who get into the working life in early ages while their peers are playing games, in order to be able to find solutions for the problems of working children. From this point, the basic objective of this presentation is to offer a perspective and seek the answers to the question ‘‘who is the working child?’’ and the effort to familiarize with the working child based on the findings of a field survey (Project for Gaining Working Children to Education, Izmir 2001) conducted in Izmir within the frame of the ILO-IPEC in a program conducted together with the Ministry of Labour and Social Security.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Number of hours that children are obliged to work in a day is an important indicator of the child labour issue. Inevitably children are spending most of their times at work and less of their times for learning and leisure activities. Those struggling to achieve schooling and working together are facing numerous handicaps due to the negative effects of working over a certain threshold on the learning skills of children. (p.63)

Some Keywords:

free time, working hours, apprentice training, child workers, ILO-IPEC

 

 

Demirbilek, S.; Demirbilek, T.(2001); ‘‘Importance of Apprentice Training for Working Children: A Study on Apprentices Studying at İzmir Apprentice Training Center’’, (In: Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara, p. 321-337


Demirbilek, S.; Demirbilek, T.(2001); ‘‘Importance of Apprentice Training for Working Children: A Study on Apprentices Studying at İzmir Apprentice Training Center’’, (In: Seminar on Working Children in Turkey), DIE Publications, Ankara, p. 321-337.

Number of Works Cited: 19

Scope:

The article focuses on the importance of apprentice training for working children, and then the survey applied on apprentices studying in some profession branches related to industrial sector in İzmir Provincial Apprentice Training Center has been discussed and evaluated. Conducted between 2 and 13 April, the survey is based on in-depth conversations with administrators, instructors and students.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Despite the said negative conditions, apprentices have harmonious relations with their workmen. Apprentices are not complaining about their employers and master workmen. Only 19 apprentices reported that they were subject to maltreatment. Children are harmonious and obedient at home-workplace-school in parallel with the judgment of their families. The reason for this is that apprentices learn the job basically by their own skills and efforts and show attitudes in line with the working, ethical and culture in their workplaces based on the education and manners they received from their families. (p.331)

Some Keywords:

working conditions, aprentices, apprentice training, child workers

 

Baş, K.(2004); ‘‘Factors Determining Child Labor in Turkey: Personal and Family-Related Factors’’, Hacettepe University Facilty of Economic and Administrative Sciences Magazine, Volume:22, Issue No.1


Baş, K.(2004); ‘‘Factors Determining Child Labor in Turkey: Personal and Family-Related Factors’’, Hacettepe University Facilty of Economic and Administrative Sciences Magazine, Volume:22, Issue No.1.

Number of Works Cited:-

Scope:

This study has been conducted with the purpose of revealing the factors determining child labour in Turkey. The study particularly focused on the relationships between child labour and education and income levels of parents, and other household characteristics. Ampirical analysis has been made based on the data obtained from the child labour survey conducted by State Statistics Institute (DIE) in 1999. As a result of analyses, it has been found that age of child, education level of parents, number of children in the family, mother’s employment and the place of residence (rural or urban) are among factors determining child labour.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Some Keywords:

apprentice training, child workers, child labour survey, income level

 

Bakar, C.; Maral, I.; Aygün, R.(2004); ‘‘Socio-Demographic Properties, Reasons for Working and Working Life Related Properties of Children Studying at Ostim and Ahievran Apprentice Training Centers’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, 17:21-27


Bakar, C.; Maral, I.; Aygün, R.(2004); ‘‘Socio-Demographic Properties, Reasons for Working and Working Life Related Properties of Children Studying at Ostim and Ahievran Apprentice Training Centers’’, Mesleki Sağlık ve Güvenlik Magazine, 17:21-27.

Number of Works Cited: 20

Scope:

The study aimed to determine the socio-demographic properties, reasons for working and working life related properties of children studying at two Vocational Training Centers (MEM) in Ankara. Materials and Method: The research has been implemented in June 2002 at Ostim and Ahi Evran MEM. 1.434 (55,7%) of 2575 apprentice students were accessed. The study employed the questionnaire under observation and questionnaire forms composed of three different parts, with the first part being descriptive, second part related to family and third part related to properties about the word being conducted. Data gathering stage has been completed by research assistants and intern doctors.

An Excerpt from the Article:

This study has been conducted in June 2002 at Ostim and Ahi Evran Vocational Training Center (MEM). Before the study, interviews were made with school administrators to inform about the topic and written permissions were obtained from the Provincial Directorate of National Education. 1176 apprentices are studying at Ostim MEM under 44 profession groups, and 1399 apprentices are studying at Ahi Evran MEM under 35 profession groups. The study targeted to reach all students studying at both MEMs, and achieved to reach 1434 (55,7%) students. Because the date of study is at the end of term, there has been a low participation in the study due to the problem of non-attendance.

Some Keywords:

apprentices, apprentice training, occupational accident, socio-demographic level

 

Abay, A.R.(2002); ‘‘Problems of Apprentice Students (The Case of Bostancı Apprentice Training Center)’’, Kocaeli University, Institute of Social Sciences Magazine, Issue No.2


Abay, A.R.(2002); ‘‘Problems of Apprentice Students (The Case of Bostancı Apprentice Training Center)’’, Kocaeli University, Institute of Social Sciences Magazine, Issue No.2.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

To determine the problems of students studying at Bostancı Apprentice Training Center, and produce proposals for solutions in consideration of problems at the national level. Answers to some questions are also sought aimed at this purpose:

What are the socio-economic and socio-cultural conditions of children -and their families- who have moved away from education, are disengaged from the educational system and joined the workforce although they were at the age of compulsory education?

– Can the Apprentice Training we struggle to implement under Law No. 3308 address the need for education to subject children who have moved away from education to reeducation?

-etc.

An excerpt from the article:

Following conclusions were generally made in the light of study findings:

a- Apprentice students generally preferred being car mechanics when they choose their careers.

b- Vast majority of students attending ÇEM (Apprentice Training Center) are above the age of 15 and graduates of elementary school. Considering the degrees of graduation of apprentices from elementary schools, it is obvious that the reason for moving away from education is not failure but lack of interest and economical.

c- In general, families of students are generally elementary school graduates, with vast majority of mothers being housewives and fathers’ being mostly independently-employed. (p.19)

Some Keywords:

apprentices, apprentice training, child labour, child abuse, socio-economic level

 

 

Comparison of Mothers with and Without Working Children with Regard to Child Labour and Attitudes About Education


Title of the Study: Comparison of Mothers with and Without Working Children with Regard to Child Labour and Attitudes About Education

Type of the Study: Master Thesis

Author of the Study: Senem Özdemir

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: Ankara, 2002 (Ankara University Institute of Social Sciences Department of Psychology)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 82

Purpose: Comparison of mothers with and without working children with

Regard to child labour and attitudes about education and researching whether or not such attitudes are differing based on causing their children to work or not.

Content: First part discusses general concepts about child labour. Second part discusses the method of study. Third part discuses the findings and fourth part is for discussion purposes.

Method: The study sample is the mothers with different education and socio-economic levels domiciled in Yalova. The study consisted of 150 mothers (75 with working children and 75 without working children). Survey on children used by Çiğdem Kağıtçıbaşı in its ‘‘Value of Child Survey’’ and attitude scale prepared by researcher about child labour and education as means of data collection. Age and education status demographic information are applied by adding to other data collection tools utilized.

Excerpt: That most of the children with working children are illiterate should require that they do not have high levels of awareness. That they are illiterate and that they do not know even Turkish minimizes their chances of self-development. (p.50)

Some keywords: family, apprentice training, value of child, child workers

 

 

 

 

Problems of Working Children: Sivas Apprentice Training Center


Title of the Study: Problems of Working Children: Sivas Apprentice Training Center

Type of the Study: Master Thesis

Author of the Study: Oktay Atmar

 

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: Ankara, 2006 (TODAİE Public Administration Programme)

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 139

Purpose: In the case of Sivas industrial zone, to determine the socio-economic properties and working conditions of children working at the industrial zone and studying at the Vocational Training Center. Therefore, this study aims to establish the situation. The second purpose is to determine how trainings given in Vocational Training Centers will be perceived by children.

Content: First part in the Labor Code bearing the title documents protecting children and child labor describes the concepts of child and child labor, and examines international and national regulations protecting child and youth labor. Part two examines the causes forcing children to work and evaluates problems encountered by problems and vocational trainings in the workplace. Part three gives the findings of the field study applied on the apprentices and employers in Sivas Vocational Training Center.

Method: Survey method has been chosen as data collection method. However, in interpreting and evaluating the survey, contributions of the researcher’s vocational observations are also benefited. The survey is applied to apprentices working in Sivas Vocational Training Center and working at the industrial zone and to master workmen employing these apprentices with them.

Excerpt: Wages to be paid to candidate apprentices, apprentices and students undergoing vocational education in enterprises and increases in these wages will be set by a contract to be made between the school administration and owner of the workplace by the guardian of candidate apprentice or the apprentice or its protector or himself or herself if he is mature. (p.39)

Some keywords: apprentices, apprentice training, vocational training, socio-economic level

 

 

 

 

 

 

Determination of Risk Factors for Child Labor; Comparison of Health Status of Children Workers and Students Attending School

Title of the Study:     Determination of Risk Factors for Child Labor; Comparison of Health Status of Children Workers and Students Attending School

Type of the Study:         Medical Specialization Thesis

Author of the Study:        Dr. Binali Çıtak

Presentation,
Year/Place of Publication:    Denizli, 2006 (Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine
Public Health Department)

Language of the Study:     Turkish

Number of Pages:        102

Purpose:    To evaluate the affect of family’s social status and some socio-demographic properties on children workers and to compare the health status of the children working and the children going to school.

Content:    In the first chapter an introduction takes place. In the second chapter the concepts of child and child workers have explained and legitimate framework has brought up. In the third chapter, the method of the search has been described and in the fourth chapter findings have set forth.

Method:    In the study, that effective factors on children workers has been searched, fact control method has been used. While child workers, aged 18 and under 18, taking education in the Vali Necati Bilican Occupational Education Center have considered as fact group, the students, aged 18 and under 18, taking education in the intensive high schools have considered as control group.

Excerpt:        The relationship between family’s social status and child workers constitutes one of the main findings of this study. In one study carried out, unemployment of father, increases working of children 3 times has reported.

Some keywords:    family, apprentice training, child labour, child health, social status, socio-demographic level, poverty

From Traditional Apprenticeship to Child Labour: A Field Survey


Title of the Study: From Traditional Apprenticeship to Child Labour: A Field Survey

 

Type of the Study: Report

Authors of the Study: Sema Erder – Kuvvet Lordoğlu

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: 1993, İstanbul

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 223

Purpose: To outline what can be done to children living in rural areas especially in poor forest villages that are within the category that ILO defined who work for more than 5 months a year apart from their family and their village and supply their labour to others to contribute to family income.

Content: In the first part, concepts like child labour, child labour in İstanbul, apprentice training and related centers are discussed. In the second part results of the employer survey is given. In the third part data obtained from apprentice survey is pointed out. In the fourth chapter working conditions of the apprentices, in the fifth chapter the way the apprentices look at themselves, in the sixth chapter girl apprentices, in the seventh chapter expectations, and in the eight chapter findings and result can be found.

Method: The research depends on the observations made and interviews done in Ümraniye Small Enterprise Industrial Site where employers are heavily using child labour like metal, machinary manifacturing and textile sectors.

Excerpt: Consequently, the existing apprentice system is regulating the relations between governmet, employers and apprentices. All three partners seem to be happy with this system. But, we have a lot of concerns about how this system can contribute to the enhancement of the skills of apprentices and will rise the incomes of these children. (p.183)

Some Keywords: apprentices, apprentice training, child labour, national regulation

 

 

Determination of Effectivity of Apprentice Training With Regard to Vocational Training, Social Status and Occupational Risks


Title of the Study: Determination of Effectivity of Apprentice Training With Regard to Vocational Training, Social Status and Occupational Risks

Type of the Study: Preliminary Report

Authors of the Study: Ministry of Education Apprentice Training and General Education Directorate

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: May 1997, Ankara

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 35

Purpose: To gather and evaluate the data obtained from Ministry of Education Apprentice Training and General Education Directorate and ILO-IPEC joint survey in 35 cities and 47 Apprentice Training Centers.

Content: Preliminary Report

Method: 21789 apprentice student sample is formed by taking into account 47 Apprentice training Centers in 35 cities from 8 different occupations. Information is obtained from 11846 workplace where practical education is given to craftsmen. Also the observations of 633 trainers are added to the survey.

Excerpt: The question to determine the accidents that these apprentices were subject to reveals that %49,5 never had accidents and %30,6 had small scratches or injuries where there was no need of medical examination and %25,9 had accidents where their injuries were cured with ordinary medical examination.(p.16)

Some Keywords: working children, working conditions, apprentice training, occupational accident, crime

ILO-IPEC Project Report


Title of the Study: ILO-IPEC Project Report

Type of the Study: Project Report (Project implemented with the supervision of ILO-IPEC)

Authors of the Study: Ministry of Labour and Social Security Work Inspection Board

Presentation,

Year/Place of Publication: March 1996, Ankara

Language of the Study: Turkish

Number of Pages: 101

Purpose: To gather the works done by Work Inspection Board.

Content: This work is done under Ministry of Labour and Social Security Work Inspection Board’s 8 groups in 8 sectors(metal works, polyester workshops, confection sector, shoe manifacturing, leather, auto repair, auto paint). Inspectors on duty at Malatya work inspection group are also added to the 1994 project. All of the sectors are evaluated under these headlines: Under determining previliged risks; risk chosen, targeted group, the appropraite environment to solve risk, education and information matterials to be used, the problems faced during the implementation of projects are discussed. Under field surveys; training efforts and production of education and communication matterials part, numbers about workplaces, work done concerning education and communication matterials, field surveys, education, evaluation of the work done, state of the previliged risk, reasons of malpractice, new suggestions thought to be useful in future are discussed.

Method: Education and communication techniques are thought to the 39 attendants that took part earlier in 1994 practices so that they have the right qualifiacations to complete the work where these consist of being at the right place at the right time using the right matterials and method. In this study, workplace inspection is taken away from its classical approach. The new method has three stages: The first one is to listen and observe; second is to evaluate and comprehend; third stage is to create policies to change the behaviours toward child labour. Third stage is done under the framework of ILO-IPEC ‘‘Communication and Education Methods’’ project.

 

Excerpt: Employers admit the use of personal protection equipment, the need of appropriate ventilation systems, benefits of high quality inputs, essentiality of seperating the painting area and the harms of high working hours but when it comes to cost evaluation their attitudes change. For these reasons for them to change their attitudes towards the concepts listed above they need time and need proper and frequent education. (p.22)

Some Keywords: apprentice training, child labour, occupational safety and health, risk

 

Zeytinoğlu, S.(1989) “The State Of Children In Turkey”, Child Policy of 1990’s Congress, DPT-UNICEF publications, Ankara, p. 241-252


Zeytinoğlu, S.(1989) “The State Of Children In Turkey”, Child Policy of 1990’s Congress, DPT-UNICEF publications, Ankara, p. 241-252.

Number of Works Cited: 10

Scope:

In the presentation, a panoromic vision of child labour in today’s world is pictured and the problem of child exploitation is discussed by defining the related concepts. The apprentice training, and the protection of children with legal regulations and their effectivity and defects are explained. Also suggestions to the problems of working children are presented.

An Exscerpt from the Article:

In today’s world millions of children are exploited in situations far worse than taking part in simple family labour division. Within the industrialisation process masses of people migrated from rural areas to cities and the ineffective social services to the poor and insufficeint employment opportunities for survival resulted in the participation of children in workforce outside of the family. (p.242)

Some Key Words:

family, working children, apprentice training, apprenticeship, child abuse, migration

 

Sencer, Y.; Erbilgin, K.( 1978 ); “The Problems Of Our Apprentices: The Results Of A Field Survey”, First National Occupational Health Congress, 19-21 October 1978, İstanbul, p. 550-559

Sencer, Y.; Erbilgin, K.( 1978 ); “The Problems Of Our Apprentices: The Results Of A Field Survey”, First National Occupational Health Congress, 19-21 October 1978, İstanbul, p. 550-559.

 

Number of Works Cited: 4

 

Scope:

The social features, occupational and life conditions of apprentices working in different parts of İstanbul are examined. For this purpose interviews are done with 319 apprentices from different sectoral backgrounds. Also, the legislation’s (no. 2089 Apprentice, Experinced Apprentice and Masterstroke) reflection on practice and level of gaining validity is tested. The report is an excerpt of the data acquired and it is the first study about apprentices.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The fact that more than %80 of apprentices born out of İstanbul are the children of families migrated to İstanbul after 1965 is taking attention. It is mentioned that the reason for migration of apprentices are %58 unemployment-bad straits-insuficient amount of land. (p.553)

 

Some Key Words:

working conditions, apprentice training, apprenticeship, apprentice-experienced apprentice-masterworkman system, migration

Özşahin, A.; Bostancı, M.; Zencir, M.(1999); “The Occupational Conditions of The Apprentices Studying at The Denizli Vali Necati Bilican Apprentice Training Center’’, Toplum ve Hekim Magazine, Ankara, March- April, 14(2), p. 87-92


Özşahin, A.; Bostancı, M.; Zencir, M.(1999); “The Occupational Conditions of The Apprentices Studying at The Denizli Vali Necati Bilican Apprentice Training Center’’, Toplum ve Hekim Magazine, Ankara, March- April, 14(2), p. 87-92

Number of Works Cited: 28

Scope:

The article is based on the research made at Denizli Vali Necati Bilican Apprentice Training Center which includes information about the living conditions of working children. The subject of this survey which has explanatory characteristics, is the candidate apprentices and apprentices studying and working at the same area. First the general profile of these children and their families are drown then data about their working conditions are given. It is emphasised in this article that these children are working beyond the permission of the laws where they are really poorly paid. Also it is stated that the results of this survey is far more worse than the findings of the other polls.

An Excerpt from the Article:

More than half of the children said(%53,5) they work for 9-12 hours, %28,4 said they work for more than 12 hours a day. Children that work for 8 hours a day, which is the legal standard only consists of %18,1. %69,2 stated that they love their jobs and %27,2 said they only like some aspects of their jobs. When children are asked, %66,6 said they only do their occupational obligations, %29,7 said sometimes they do other staff and %3,7 said they only do the petty jobs. % 58,1 said they do not have any yearly holiday, %13,2 said they have 8-15 days of holiday, %7,2 said they only have less than 7 days of yearly holidays. %83,3 stated that they work 6-7 days a week and only %22,5 work for 5 days a week. (p.89)

Some Key Words:

working conditions, workingh hours, apprentices, apprentice training

Mangır M.; Aral N.; Köksal A.(1993); ”Reasons For Working Of The Children Attending Apprentice Training Centers”, Kültür Gençlik Magazine, January-April, Ministry of Culture, Ankara, p. 43-45


Mangır M.; Aral N.; Köksal A.(1993); ”Reasons For Working Of The Children Attending Apprentice Training Centers”, Kültür Gençlik Magazine, January-April, Ministry of Culture, Ankara, p. 43-45.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

Children that attend Siteler Apprentice Training Center from metal, upholstery and woodwork sectors are selected using simple random sampling model in pairs of 60. It is found that although economic contribution to family, and lack of education opportunities are factors effecting child labour the main reason is unemployment and poverty related to this. The necessitiy of the active participation of the society for children’s escape from the negative working conditions and for becoming ones that can safely look at the future and who are fully emotionally, methally and socially developed are emphasised.

An Excerpt from the Article:

But unemployment, and poverty caused as a conseqounce of this fact lies in the base of fundamental reasons. Therefore, studies should be done to overcome unemployment and preventive measures should be taken. (p.45)

Some Key Words:

working children, working conditions, apprentice training, apprenticeship, unemployment, poverty

 

 

Fişek, A.G.; “Medico-Social Problems Of The Child Workers Research”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, May, Issue No. 8, p. 27-32


Fişek, A.G.; “Medico-Social Problems Of The Child Workers Research”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, May, Issue No. 8, p. 27-32.

Number of Works Cited: 29

Scope:

The article which takes the situation where there is no alternative as the main reason of full time child labour in the developing countries also gives findings on working children’s profiles and health conditions of child workers employed in the small scale enterprises. In the result part, social policies towards child workers should be revised and new models should be applied. With the inclusion of children, a medico-social organisation which surrounds apprentice education centers and work places are recommended to take place.

 

An Excerpt from the Article:

When children’s expectations about the future is considered, results worth thinking of and different in terms of educational status, gender and backgrounds are revealed. Girls with the effect of traditional structure are planning to withdraw from the working life. The girls who are under the effect of this thought consists of %71,8 of the girls that are the sample population of this survey. This really effects their future lives very closely. Because they do not want to become a skilled worker. But observations shows that they are forced to return back to the active labour markets because of economic difficulties without any skills. (p.29)

Some Key Words:

diet, apprentice training, child workers, child health, occupational safety and health, medico-social problems

 

 

Fişek, A.G. (1998); “ Ending Child labour : Differences Between Girls and Boys”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine , January-February, Issue No. 36, p. 2-4


Fişek, A.G. (1998); “ Ending Child labour : Differences Between Girls and Boys”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine , January-February, Issue No. 36, p. 2-4.

Number of Works Cited: 3

Scope:

The main differnces in the boy and girl child labour is presented within working children’s emotional status acoording to gender, families attitude towrads reasons of child labour, gender distribution of the amount of wages that are transferred to the household by the working children (14-15 ages) framework. Also subjects like if children’s consent was taken when they start working and changing jobs are discussed in the article. The data used in this article are obtained from the surveys conducted during Fişek Institute’s field work that took place in Denizli in 1996. The population of the survey are children attending apprentice education center. All of them are interviewed and their health examinations are done. And then from the interview cards girls and boys that have the same age and same background are selected as samples for the survey.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The conditions that change job into torture and conditions that deter little girls from work should be inspected. One of the leading reason is the strict discipline attitude rather than a psycologic approach that would enrich the working life. Another one is the increase of the job deterring pressure of wedding as age rises traditionally. Another important fact is sexual harrassment apart from the hard and unhealthy working conditions. This torture deepens and it is hidden from the families, because these girls fear that their families might deter themselves from their jobs. So, this makes these girls think that it is imposible for them to continue working for all their lives. (p.4)

Some Key Words:

working children, apprentice training, girl child labour

Fişek, A.G.(1979); “Protection of Chldren and Youth In Terms Of Human Rights’’, Okul Defteri Magazine, July, Issue No. 3, p. 19-21


Fişek, A.G.(1979); “Protection of Chldren and Youth In Terms Of Human Rights’’, Okul Defteri Magazine, July, Issue No. 3, p. 19-21.

Number of Works Cited:

Scope:

The article is more law based. The reasons why children enter the working life is explained and then the development of social policy tools against child labour is discussed and national and international regulations are quoted. Also findings of a research made in Ankara Iskitler and Industrial Bazaar on apprentices and young workers and SSK’s (Social Insurance Institution) occupational accidents and diseases statistics are given.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The way to keep children and adolescents away from the protective umbrella of Labour Law is found in our country. The majority of this group is employed as apprentices. Some appliers of the law discuss if the new Apprentice and Master Workman Legislation is apart of the labour Law or not. This new law defines these apprentices who are required to take training at most of 8 hours as students. And when other aspects of this law is inspected it gives the impression that it is legislated not to protect the apprentices or the experineced apprentices to protect the employers. (p.20)

Some Key Words:

working conditions, apprentices, apprentice training, occupational accident, occupational disease, national regulation

Çolak, Ö.F.(1999); “Child Labour and Education”, İşveren Magazine, Cilt 37, Issue No. 7, April, Ankara


Çolak, Ö.F.(1999); “Child Labour and Education”, İşveren Magazine, Cilt 37, Issue No. 7, April, Ankara.

Number of Works Cited: 4

Scope:

The compulsory and non-compulsory reasons why children work are listed and also the state of child labour in the country is evaluated under the guidance of DIE’s(National Statistical Institute) Child Labour Survey. It was underlined that the way to keep children out of work depends on the amount of money spend on education from the budget.

An Excerpt from the Article:

Taking into account that %65 of people employed between the ages 12-24 have primary school, 11% have secondary school and %16 percent have lycee diplomas, the 8 year compulsory education system should be implemented more effectively. Enhancement of the production system where it is difficult to create a job for the low human capital worker, will fasten the positive transformation. (p.13)

Some Key Words:

working children, apprentice training, reasons of child labour, child labour survey

Bayçın, S.; Kozcu A, Ş.; Öncü, S.; Özgüle, A.; Şahbaz, H.; Şahbaz, T. (1998); “The 5th Year Primary School Students’ School Attendence and Work Behaviour and Their Future Occupatinal Expectations That Live in İzmir-Karşıyaka Ghetto Area”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, November-December, No. 41, p. 17-19


Bayçın, S.; Kozcu A, Ş.; Öncü, S.; Özgüle, A.; Şahbaz, H.; Şahbaz, T. (1998); “The 5th Year Primary School Students’ School Attendence and Work Behaviour and Their Future Occupatinal Expectations That Live in İzmir-Karşıyaka Ghetto Area”, Çalışma Ortamı Magazine, November-December, No. 41, p. 17-19.

Number of Works Cited: 6

Scope:

The survey is done before İzmir Working Children Group’s education to the parents of the 5th grade primary school children about the Apprenticeship Training Centers. First the primary schools that children attend with highest possibilty of not continuing secondary education in Karşıyaka district ghetto area are determined and the factors effecting are outlined. The 1634 children studying in the 5th grade of Gümüşpala, Cumhuriyet, Örnekköy, Yamanlar and Küçük Yamanlar area primary schools are the population of this research. The attitudes of these children towards working while they attend school and their intention of attending secondary schools are surveyed where the population’s %46,6 are girls and %53,4 are boys. The findings are compared with DIE’s (State Statistical Institute) Household Labour Force Survey and A.G.Fişek’s ‘Medico-Social Problems of The Working Children’ research.

An Excerpt from the Aerticle:

Although it is illegal to employ anyone under the age of 11, %21,7 of the childen are found to be part-time workers while attending primary school. Economic concers outlawed legal issues. It is expected that these children are highly likely to start working after completing primary school. %29,8 said they will not be attending secondary school or they said they are not sure yet. Although when we look at what they want to become in the future, the anwers show that university education is needed for these jobs. (p.19)

Some Key Words:

apprentices, apprentice training, child labour survey, child health

Aygün, T.(1998); “The Concept of Childhood and Children In Our Era”, Third National Occupational Health Congress, TTB Central Council, October, Ankara, p. 350-354


Aygün, T.(1998); “The Concept of Childhood and Children In Our Era”, Third National Occupational Health Congress, TTB Central Council, October, Ankara, p. 350-354.

Number of Works Cited: 6

Scope:

This presentation was in the Health Of Working Children section of the congress. The concept of being a child has changed dramatically in our era and it lost its meaning. The change in the economic environment has also changed the status of the children. The linkages in between the special category of children and the new ways of child labour are discussed as well.

 

An Excerpt from the Article:

The place of working childen in the society has a further meaning than just minimising costs and maximising profits. Apart from being a cheap labour force, they represent the lowest step in the social order and own a place that nobody desires and called as ‘The Doomsed’, in a society where authority is tried to be legalised. Worst of all the amount of street children that are excluded from the society rises everyday and this creates new social fractions and hierarchy. (p.353)

Some Key Words:

apprentice training, child development, child workers, cheap labour

Aygün, R.; Akdur, R.(1978); “Occupational Conditions of The Small Scale Enterprises in Siteler Ankara and Determination of Some Properties of the Workers”, First National Occupational Health Congress, 19-21 October, İstanbul, p. 563-580


Aygün, R.; Akdur, R.(1978); “Occupational Conditions of The Small Scale Enterprises in Siteler Ankara and Determination of Some Properties of the Workers”, First National Occupational Health Congress, 19-21 October, İstanbul, p. 563-580.

Number of Works Cited: 2

Scope:

This survey is made in 100 workplaces to contribute to the studies that are conducted by Ankara Physician’s Chamber about the determination of occupational health conditions and social problems of the workers. It is observed that minimising costs in labour intensive works supports child labour and cheap labour force and also it shows that labour is exploited where occupational health and safety standards are low and where proper official inspections are not made properly. This research is an important guide to the forthcoming studies.

An Excerpt from the Article:

835 (%62,5)workers which attend the survey are under 18 years of age. This data proofs our observations. Big enterprises making the same goods have %9 of workers under the age of 18. (p.564)

Some Key Words:

apprentice training, child development, child workers, occupational safety and health, cheap labour

Aktaş, A.M.; Arıkan, Ç.; “Socio-Demographic Features of the Youngsters Working as Apprentices and Their Feelings About Their Occupation’’, Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Hizmetler Yüksekokulu Magazine, Volume: 11, Issue No. 1-2-3, p. 65-83


Aktaş, A.M.; Arıkan, Ç.; “Socio-Demographic Features of the Youngsters Working as Apprentices and Their Feelings About Their Occupation’’, Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Hizmetler Yüksekokulu Magazine, Volume: 11, Issue No. 1-2-3, p. 65-83.

Number of Works Cited: 25

Scope:

The problems that might arise from the work and social environment of these apprentice youngsters are invetigated. To complete the study 277 adolescents attending Siteler Apprentice Training Center and working at siteler as apprentices are examined to find out their soci-demographic characteristics, their friend and occupational relations and their psychological moods.

An Excerpt from the Article:

The majority of them believe that problems with their master workman can be solved with open communication opportunities. The minority of them think that the only solution can be to change the job. Rather than solving the problems they prefer to change the job and the environment which is a more fundamental solution. The number that wants master workman’s bullying to be over for better relations is rather low. (p.79)

Some Key Words:

working children, working conditions, apprentice training, socio-demographic level, masterworkman-apprentice relationship